Aqeedah: Divine Preordainments

Aqeedah: Divine Preordainments

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

Verily, We have created all things with Divine Preordainments

(Surat-ul-Qaf 49)

 Preamble

Qadar is the divine preordainments of all things before their creation, as written in the Book of decrees, Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuuz[1]. The following paragraphs will try to give some explanations to this important part of Islamic creed, provide some proofs and list some of its levels.

Qadar is part of Muslim faith

The hadith of Jubril which is the second of An-Nawawi’s forty hadith collection is quite long. Angel Jubril came in form of a man and asked the prophet some questions on basic tenets of Islam while the later was in the midst of some of his companions. The prophet listed Qadar among other six parts of faith. Emphasis is evident in the response when the prophet mentioned Qadar, which indicated its special necessity and the consequence of its denial.

Qadar in the Qur’an

مَا كَانَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ مِنْ حَرَجٍ فِيمَا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَهُ سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ فِي الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قَدَرًا مَقْدُورًا

There is no blame on the prophet in that which Allah has made legal for him. That has been Allah’s Way with those who have passed away of (the prophets). And the command of Allah is a decree determined.[2]

…………………………………….

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ آمِنُوا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا مَعَكُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ نَطْمِسَ وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهَا أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّا أَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولا

O you who have been given the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what we have revealed (to Muhammad) confirming what is (already) with you, before we wipe out faces (by making them like the back of necks; without nose, mouth, eyes, etc.) and turn them behind, or curse them as we cursed the Sabbath breakers. And the Commandment of Allâh is always executed.[3]

…………………………………….

مَا أَصَابَ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ يَهْدِ قَلْبَهُ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

No calamity befalls, but with the leave [i.e. decision and Qadar (Divine Preordainment)] of Allâh, and whosoever believes in Allâh, He guides his heart [to the true faith with certainty, i.e. what has befallen him was already written for him by Allâh from the Qadar (Divine Preordainments)], and Allâh is the All-Knower of everything.[4]

 Levels of belief in Qadar

Qadar has up to four levels. Only the first two are listed below:

  1. Belief that the knowledge of Allah precedes His creation.
  2. Belief that this knowledge has been recorded in Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuuz.

[1] Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuuz: literarily means preserved tablet

[2] Surat-ul-Ahzaab 38

[3] Surat-ul-Nisa 47

[4] Surat-ul-Taghabun 11

Leave a Reply