BEING THE SECOND SERMON FOR THE MONTH OF DHUL-HIJJAH 10/D. HIJJAH/1438AH(1/SEPT/2017CE)
LIFE OF PROPHET IBRAHIM (AS): LESSONS AND EXHORTATIONS
All praises are due to Allah Who had blessed us with open and secret favours and made the sacrificial animals subservient to us and had created seasons for vying towards goodness. I testify there is no god but Allah alone, He has no associate, and I testify that Muhammad (pbuh) is the servant of Allah sent to all mankind and jinns. May Allah bestow peace and blessings on him (pbuh), his families, his companions whom Allah had granted piety to their souls.
O servants of Allah, I enjoin you and me to fear Allah. Piety is the core aim for legislating the slaughtering of the eidram as buttressed thus:
( لَنْ يَنَالَ اللهَ لُحُومُهَا ولا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَكِنْ يَنَالُهُ التَّقوى مِنكم ) الحج 37
Their meat will not reach Allah, nor will their blood, but what reaches Him is piety from you. (22: 37)
Dear Muslims, being the second sermon in the month of dhul- hijjah, which falls on the day of Eid Al- Adha, we therefore deem it fit to make today’s topic to be related with prophet Ibrahim who named us Muslims- THE LIFE OF PROPHET IBRAHIM (AS): LESSONS AND EXHORTATIONS.
Position of Prophet Ibrahim (AS):
– He was the father of all prophets. Allah says: (And We gave to Him Isaac and Jacob and placed in his descendants prophethood and scripture. And We gave him his reward in this world, and indeed, he is in the Hereafter among the righteous.) (29: 27)
– He occupies a great position among the three celestial religion. Ibn Abbas said: “The Madinites Christians of Najran and Jewish Priests gathered before the prophet (pbuh) disputing over prophet Ibrahim, every party was ascribing him to itself, thus Allah revealed: “O People of the Scripture, why do you argue about Abraham while the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed until after him? Then will you not reason? (66) Here you are – those who have argued about that of which you have (some) knowledge, but why do you argue about that of which you have no knowledge? And Allah knows, while you know not. (67) Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was one inclining toward truth, a Muslim (submitting to Allah). And he was not of the polytheists. (68) Indeed, the most worthy of Abraham among the people are those who followed him (in submission to Allah) and this prophet, and those who believe (in his message). And Allah is the ally of the believers.” (3: 65- 68)
Similarity between Ibrahim and Muhammad (AS):
- Physical appearance: It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: There appeared before me the apostles, and Moses was among men as if he was one of the people of Shanu’a, and I saw Jesus son of Mary (peace be upon him) and I saw nearest in resemblance with him was ‘Urwa b. Mas’ud, and I saw Ibrahim (blessings of Allah be upon him) and I see your companions much in resemblance with him, i.e. his himself. (Muslim)
b- Stages and types of Dawah: Inviting the polytheist, migration from the land of kufr, much trials and tribulations.
- He called his close relatives first: Allah says: “”Warn your nearest kinsmen.” (26: 214). “Abu Huraira reported: When (this verse) was revealed to him: “Warn your nearest kinsmen.” the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: O people of Quraish, buy yourselves from Allah, I cannot avail you at all against Allah; O sons of Abd al-Muttalib. I cannot avail you at all against Allah; 0 Abbas b. ‘Abd al- Muttalib, I cannot avail you at all against Allah; O Safiya (aunt of the Messenger of Allah), I cannot avail you at all against Allah; 0 Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, ask me whatever you like, but I cannot avail you at all against Allah.
- Ibrahim was granted divine guidance from childhood: “And We had certainly given Abraham his sound judgment before, and We were of him well-Knowing” (21: 51)
- He expressed dislike for his father’s practice of idolatry.
- He used the best of admonition to convey his message. Allah says: “And mention in the Book (the story of) Abraham. Indeed, he was a man of truth and a prophet. (42) (Mention) when he said to his father, “O my father, why do you worship that which does not hear and does not see and will not benefit you at all? (43) O my father, indeed there has come to me of knowledge that which has not come to you, so follow me; I will guide you to an even path. ( 44 ) O my father, do not worship Satan. Indeed Satan has ever been, to the Most Merciful, disobedient. ( 45 ) O my father, indeed I fear that there will touch you a punishment from the Most Merciful so you would be to Satan a companion (in Hellfire).”
- Use best forms of expressions, kind words use, demonstrating his kindness, care, etc such “O my father ..”
- His father’s response was hardness, harsh responses and persistence on disbelief: “(His father) said, “Have you no desire for my gods, O Abraham? If you do not desist, I will surely stone you, so avoid me a prolonged time.” (19: 46)
- Goodness to those we are oblige to be good to, such as parent, elderly, in the event of dispute: “(Abraham) said, “Peace will be upon you.” (19: 47)
- Firmness on the truth even where the enemy is a kafir: “O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just.” (5: 8)
- Not to lose hope over anyone or situation when we try to create change or better in them: “(Abraham) said, “Peace will be upon you. I will ask forgiveness for you of my Lord. Indeed, He is ever gracious to me.” (19: 47)
- The hearts of du’at (callers to Allah) is ever merciful: “Our Lord, forgive me and my parents and the believers the Day the account is established.” (14: 41)
- Outcome is a product of the work: “And when he reached with him (the age of) exertion, he said, “O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I (must) sacrifice you, so see what you think.” He said, “O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast.” (37: 102)
Inviting his people:
- He disliked the idolatry they were into: “When he said to his father and his people, “What are these statues to which you are devoted?” (21: 52)
- He reminded them of the Lordship of Allah: “They said, “Have you come to us with truth, or are you of those who jest?” (56) He said, “(No), rather, your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth who created them, and I, to that, am of those who testify.” (21: 55- 56)
- He provided unquestionable proofs to displace the fake arguments of his people: “So he made them into fragments, except a large one among them, that they might return to it (and question). (59) They said, “Who has done this to our gods? Indeed, he is of the wrongdoers.” (60) They said, “We heard a young man mention them who is called Abraham.” (61) They said, “Then bring him before the eyes of the people that they may testify.”(62) They said, “Have you done this to our gods, O Abraham?”(63) He said, “Rather, this – the largest of them – did it, so ask them, if they should (be able to) speak.”(64) So they returned to (blaming) themselves and said (to each other), “Indeed, you are the wrongdoers.”(65) Then they reversed themselves, (saying), “You have already known that these do not speak!”(66) He said, “Then do you worship instead of Allah that which does not benefit you at all or harm you? (67) Fie to you and to what you worship instead of Allah. Then will you not use reason?” (21 v 59 – 67)
Situation where it is permissible to lie or use Ta’reedh- i.e be diplomatic:
- Regarding Ibrahim’s (AS) response that: “And said, “Indeed, I am (about to be) ill.” (37: 89). Ta’reedh is that necessary deviation away from lying. The Prophet (pbuh) used it when he was asked where are you from? He replied: “From water” in agreement with the words of Allah that: “Then He made his posterity out of the extract of a liquid disdained.” (32: 8)
- In times of war to the enemy:
- In the narration of the words of the husband to the wife.
Ibn Shihab said he did not hear that exemption was granted in anything what the people speak as lie but in three cases: in battle, for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife, and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband (in a twisted form in order to bring reconciliation between them).
The disposition of his people to his dawah:
- Harshness: “They said, “Then bring him before the eyes of the people that they may testify.” … “They said, “Burn him and support your gods – if you are to act.” (21: 61 and 68)
- Oppression and tyranny:
- The entire community was against him
Tawakul- (Reliance on Allah) is the weapon of a believer when all forces gather against him:
- Allah is the best helper:
- Evil returns to the perpetrators:
All praises are due to Allah. May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon Prophet Muhammad, his household, companions and believers till the end of time.
Fatwa from the Standing Committee regarding the case when the day of Eid happens to be a Friday
There have been many questions regarding the case when the day of Eid happens to be a Friday and the two Eids come together: Eid al-Fitr or al-Adha and the “eid” of Friday (Jumu‘ah), which is the weekly “eid”. Is Jumu‘ah prayer obligatory for the one who attended Eid prayer, or is it the case that the Eid prayer is sufficient and he can pray Zuhr instead of Jumu‘ah? Should the adhaan for Zuhr prayer be given in the mosques or not? And there are other questions. So the Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas has decided to issue the following fatwa:
Praise be to Allah.
Concerning this issue, there are a number of marfoo‘ hadiths and mawqoof reports, including the following:
- The hadith of Zaydi bn Arqam (may Allah be pleased with him), according to which Mu‘aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan (may Allah have mercy on him) asked him: Did you ever witness with the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) two Eids that happened on the same day? He said: Yes. He said: What did he do? He said: He offered the Eid prayer, then he granted a concession allowing people to missJumu‘ah prayer, and he said: “Whoever wishes to pray (Jumu‘ah), let him do so.”
Narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, an-Nasaa’i, Ibn Maajah, ad-Daarimi, and by al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak, where he said: This hadith has saheeh isnaads, even though they (al-Bukhaari and Muslim) did not narrate it, and it has a corroborating report according to the conditions of Muslim. And adh-Dhahabi agreed with him. An-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo‘: Its isnaad is jayyid.
- The corroborating evidence mentioned above is the hadith of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him), according to which the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Two Eids have come together on this day of yours, so whoever wishes, it (the Eid prayer) will suffice for Jumu‘ah, but we will pray Jumu‘ah.”Narrated by al-Haakim as stated above; also narrated by Abu Dawood, IbnMaajah, Ibn al-Jaarood, al-Bayhaqi and others.
- The hadith of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: Two Eids came together at the time of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). He led the people in (the Eid) prayer, then he said: “Whoever wishes to come to Jumu‘ah may come and whoever wishes not to do so may stay away.” Narrated by IbnMaajah. It was also narrated by at-Tabaraani in al-Mu‘jam al-Kabeer as follows: Two Eids came together at the time of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): Eid al-Fitr and Jumu‘ah. The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) led them in the Eid prayer, then he turned to face them and said: O people, you have attained goodness and reward, but we are going to pray Jumu‘ah; whoever wishes to pray Jumu‘ah may do so, and whoever wishes to go back, may go back.”
- The hadith of Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him), according to which the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Two Eids have come together on this day of yours, so whoever wishes, it (the Eid prayer) will suffice for Jumu‘ah, but we will pray Jumu‘ah in sha Allah.”
Narrated by IbnMaajah. Al-Buwaysiri said: Its isnaad is saheeh and its men are thiqaat (trustworthy)
- The mursal report of Dhakwaan ibn Saalih says: Two Eids came together at the time of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): Jumu‘ah and Eid. He led them in (the Eid prayer), then he stood up to address the people and said: “You have remembered Allah and attained goodness. But we will pray Jumu‘ah, so whoever wants to stay – in his house – may do so, and whoever wants to pray Jumu‘ah may do so.”
Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in as-Sunan al-Kubra.
- It was narrated that ‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabaah said: Ibnaz-Zubayr led us in prayer on the day of Eid, on a Friday, at the beginning of the day, then we went to pray Jumu‘ah and he did not come out to us, so we prayed by ourselves. Ibn ‘Abbaas was in at-Taa’if and when we came we told him about that, and he said: He acted in accordance with the Sunnah. Narrated by Abu Dawood. A different version was narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah, in which he added at the end: And Ibnaz-Zubayr said: I saw ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab do something like this when two Eids happened on the same day.
- In the Saheeh of al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him) and the Muwatta’ of Maalik (may Allah have mercy on him) it is narrated that Abu ‘Ubayd, the freed slave of IbnAzhar, said: I was present on the occasion of two Eids (together) with ‘Uthmaanibn ‘Affaan; that was on a Friday. He offered the (Eid) prayer before the khutbah, then delivered the khutbah and said: O people, on this day two Eids have come to you together, so whoever wants to wait for Jumu‘ah with the people of al-‘Awaali, let him do so, and whoever wants to go back, then I gave him permission to do so.
- It was narrated that ‘Ali ibnAbiTaalib (may Allah have mercy on him) said, when two Eids came together on one day: Whoever wants to pray Jumu‘ah, let him do so, and whoever wants to stay, let him do so.” Sufyaan said: i.e., let him stay in his house.Narrated by ‘Abdar-Razzaaq in al-Musannaf; a similar report was narrated by IbnAbiShaybah.
Based on these hadiths that have isnaads going back to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and these mawqoof reports from a number of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them), and what has been affirmed by the majority of scholars, the Committee has issued the following rulings:
- Whoever attends the Eid prayer has a concession allowing him not to attend Jumu‘ah prayer, so he may pray it as Zuhr at the time of Zuhr. But if he decides to pray Jumu‘ah with the people, that is preferable.
- Whoever has not attended the Eid prayer is not included in that concession, therefore the obligation to attend Jumu‘ah is not waived in his case. Therefore he must go to the mosque in order to pray Jumu‘ah. If there are insufficient numbers to perform Jumu‘ah prayer, then he should pray it as Zuhr.
- The imam of the Jumu‘ah mosque must hold Jumu‘ah prayers on that day so that those who wish to attend, and those who did not attend the Eid prayer, may attend Jumu‘ah. If sufficient numbers of people attend for Jumu‘ah prayer, then Jumu‘ah prayer must be offered, otherwise it should be offered as Zuhr.
- Whoever attends the Eid prayer and has a concession allowing him not to attend Jumu‘ah must pray it as Zuhr after the time for Zuhr begins.
- At this time it is not prescribed to give the adhaan except in the mosques where Jumu‘ah prayers will be held. It is not prescribed to give the adhaan for Zuhr on that day.
- The view that whoever attends the Eid prayer has a concession waiving both Jumu‘ah and Zuhr prayer on that day is an incorrect view. Therefore it is rejected by the scholars and they have deemed it to be mistaken and odd, because it is contrary to the Sunnah and suggests that one of the obligatory duties enjoined by Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, is to be waived with no evidence to that effect. Perhaps the Sunnahs and reports about this issue – which grant a concession allowing the one who attended the Eid prayer not to attend Jumu‘ah, but state that he must still pray Zuhr – did not reach the one who said that.
And Allah, may He be exalted, knows best. May Allah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon his family and companions.
Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullah Aal ash-Shaykh, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdar-Rahmaan al-Ghadyaan, ShaykhBakribn ‘Abdullah Abu Zayd, Shaykh Saalihi bn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan
Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas
Oh Allah descend peace; flowing with continuous tranquility and security upon Nigeria and all other Muslim nations. O Allah accept the worship of the pilgrims of hajj and Umrah, and grant us all Your pleasure, And the last of our call will be, “Praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds!”