DUTIES OF THE LAST TEN DAYS OF RAMADAN

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL

BEING THE THIRD KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADAN 16/RAMADAN/1439AH (1/JUNE/2018CE)

DUTIES OF THE LAST TEN DAYS OF RAMADAN

Praise Allah says:

 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ ﴿١٨٣﴾

O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous (183)

وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّـهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّـهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ ﴿١٨٧﴾

Allah says: And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them. Thus does Allah make clear His ordinances to the people that they may become righteous. (187).

We praise and thank Him, seek His help and guidance, forgiveness and repentance. We seek refuge in Him from the evil of our souls and deeds. Whoever Allah guides is guided and whoever He misled none will mislead Him. I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger who says: “Whoever fast in Ramadan with faith and hope of reward from Allah, all his former sins will be forgiven” (Agreed upon). May Allah bless him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

As to what follow,

Dear faithful, I enjoin you and myself to fear Allah, the Almighty both outwardly and inwardly, Allah says:

”  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ (102) ” {آل عمران : 102}

O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him].” (3: 102)

Brothers in faith, today’s sermon is the third in the month of Ramadan and we shall be focusing on DUTIES OF THE LAST TEN DAYS OF RAMADAN.It must be stated that the latter part of every virtuous moment is better. We are now in the second half of the month of Ramadan where the latter part is better than the former section. It is expected of a Muslim to pull his girdle and readiness for devotion in the nights and to wake his family member as was the practice of the Messenger of Allah –(pbuh).

The merits of the last ten days of Ramadan:

Aisha (RA) narrated said: “When the (last) ten days begins, the Messenger of Allah – peace be upon him – tighten his loincloth (i.e neglect cohabiting with his wives), and he keep awake in the night (by worshipping Allah), and would wake up his family” (Bukhari)

Also Muslim reported that’Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) used to exert himself in devotion during the last ten nights to a greater extent than at any other time.

The messenger of Allah would engage himself in I’tikaaf  (seclusion in the masjid for devotions and prayers) in this period where having intercourse is as well forbidden owing to the proof in the Quran: “And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them.” (2:187).

I’tikaaf : definition, legitimacy, purpose, place and time:

I’tikaaf in language means persistent or inherent practice of an act good or bad. Allah says: (يَعْكِفُونَ عَلَى أَصْنَامٍ لَهُمْ)

then they came upon a people intent in devotion to [some] idols of theirs. “ (7:138)

Technically as defined by the Hanbali school: Persistent stay in the masjid for devotion, of a specific manner, by a Muslim, who is sane, distinctive, in state of purity, for a minimum of an hour. It is not permissible of an unbeliever, even if he is an apostate, as well as an insane person or a child, due to lack of intention. And not from a person in a state of post-sex condition and so on, even ifhepaerforms ablution, passage through the masjid is equally not acceptable, however a moment stay is the least.

Evidence of the legitimacy:Allah says:

ولاَ تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وأنْتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِد

And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them.” (2:187).

وعهدنا إلي إبراهيم وإسماعيل أن طهرا بيتي للطائفين والعاكفين “ البقرة: 125

And We charged Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], “Purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who are staying [there] for worship and those who bow and prostrate [in prayer].” (2: 125)

Hadith: “Narrated ‘Aisha: (the wife of the Prophet) The Prophet used to practice I’tikaaf   in the last ten days of Ramadan till he died and then his wives used to practice I’tikaaf   after him.

Aim: The aim is to purity the heart through being conscious of Allah with devotion to worship and forsaking the worldly inclinations, to gain Allah’s mercy and protection and victory. It is one of the most beloved acts of worship which enhances watchfulness over solat and awaiting its time. All these added to fasting elevates the believer before God. Its best period is the last ten days which provide opportunity for the search for the night of majesty.

Time:It is desirable all time in Ramadan and other months. Most scholars accept any minimum time possible while the Maalikis stipulate for at least one day and night.

The place: The Hanbalis stipulate it should be in a mosque where congregational prayers are held without any disagreement.

If a woman observes I’tikaaf  in the mosque, she should cover herself under a tent as did the wives of the Prophet peace be upon him.

Narrated ‘Amra: Aisha said, “the Prophet used to practice I’tikaaf   in the last ten days of Ramadan and I used to pitch a tent for him, and after offering the morning prayer, he used to enter the tent.” Hafsa asked the permission of ‘Aisha to pitch a tent for her and she allowed her and she pitched her tent. When ZainabbintJahsh saw it, she pitched another tent. In the morning the Prophet noticed the tents. He said, ‘What is this?” He was told of the whole situation. Then the Prophet said, “Do you think that they intended to do righteousness by doing this?” He therefore abandoned the I’tikaaf   in that month and practiced I’tikaaf   for ten days in the month of Shawwal.”

I’tikaaf  judgment and position of making vow which mandate on a Mu’takif:

The Rule of I’tikaaf : It is desirable. I’tikaaf  can be classified into three (3) according to Abu hanifah:

  • Obligatory: this is for he who vow to observe I’tikaaf .
  • Sunnah: this applies to I’tikaaf in last ten days of Ramadan as exemplified by the Prophet (pbuh).
  • Desirable: this can be at any time Ramadan inclusive, even if it is just for a short moment.

Conditions of I’tikaaf :

1 – Islam: i.e being a Muslim.

2 –Soundness of intellect or ability to have reach age of discretion.

3 –It should be in the Mmasjid: It is not acceptable to be done in homes, except for women who are permitted to do it in the masjid within her home- and that is the specific area she had identify for solat.

4 –Intention: The Prophet said: “Actions are (rewarded) according to the intentions” Imam Shafii added that one should specify the class of the I’tikaaf  in the course of establishing the intention.

5 – Fasting: This is a general condition stipulated by the Maalikis. Hanafi stipulates fasting for I’tikaaf  based on vow (the obligatory). However the Shafi’i and Hanbali did not consider it except in the case of vow, where the Mu’takif specified fasting with the I’tikaaf .

Evidence of those have not considered fasting is the Hadith of Umar where he said: “O Messenger of Allah, I have vowed to make I’tikaaf  in the holy Masjid for a night, he (pbuh) said to him: “fulfill your vow” {Bukhari and Muslim}

Here he did not require him to fast, the I’tikaaf  was targeted to be in the night as well.

However, the evidence for those considered fasting is the hadith of Ibn Abbas: “The Mu’takif is not required to fast except if he made it binding on himself.” {Narrated DaaraqutniIbn Abbas}.

6 – Purity from janaabah, menstruation and postpartum condition:

7 –Seeking of the husband’s permission:

Permissible acts for the Mu’takif:

1- Adherence to the masjid without unnecessary exit, as that is a pillar of I’tikaaf .

Etiquettes of I’tikaaf

1- He should be engaged in meritorious acts like solat, reading qur’an, remeberance of Allah, seeking blessing on the Prophet (pbuh), pondering over the creations of the universe and its essence, reading the tafsir and other Islamic history, etc.

2- Fasting

3- It is desirable to observe I’tikaaf  in the central masjid where solatul-jum’ah is observed. The best of all masjid is the holy Masjid in Makkah, the prophet’s Masjid and the Masjidul-Aqsa.

4- Most desirable to have it in Ramadan due to the virtue of the period, especially in the last ten days.

5- It desirable as well to continue the I’tikaaf  including the night of ‘eid, so as to move from venue of I’tikaaf  to ‘Eid prayer in the morning. The Prophet said: “Whoever stand (to pray) in the night of ‘eid, with hope of reward from Allah, his heart would be dead on the day hearts would be dead.” (Ibn Majah)

6- He should also desert all irrelevances, including argument, insults and obscenity.

What are disliked in I’tikaaf :

It is disliked to neglect any of the etiquettes mentioned above. It is also disliked to turn the venue to a market place or where business agreement are contracted or signed. As well, it is forbidden for whoever sees being silent as an act of worship, it is an imitation of the fasting type of the people of the book which have been expunged.

Things that invalidate I’tikaaf : These include the following:

1 – Going out without a legitimate excuse, such as going out for sale or trade.

2 – Sexual intercourse: Allah says:

ولاَ تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وأنْتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِد

And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them.” (2:187).

3 –Ejaculation in the event of direct lustfully contact like in kissing or caressing. “And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them.” (2:187).

4 – Apostasy:

5 –Intoxication during the day or at night.

6 – To faint or get mad for a long while.

7 – Menstruation and postpartum.

8 – Eating deliberately for the Maalikis and hanafis who consider fasting as condition for I’tikaaf .

9 – Falling in great sins such as backbiting, gossip and slander invalidate I’tikaaf  as stipulated by the Maalikis, however the major overruled it does not.

The judgement on an invalidated I’tikaaf .

Hanbali said: for voluntary I’tikaaf  he who leaves the masjid, for an unusual reason such as going for a mandatory witness, or fear of a threat or sickness and the like, and stayed for long, he is to choose between returning to the I’tikaaf  or otherwise, because it is not obligatory. But for mandatory I’tikaaf  he must return to the I’tikaaf  venue.

Second Sermon

Praise be to Allah that says in His Holy Book: (من عمل صالحا فلنفسه)If any one does a righteous deed, it ensures to the benefit of his own soul.” (45:15)We praise and thank Him. May Allah shower His peace and blessing upon our noble Prophet- Muhammad, his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense. Abu Dharr reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: In the morning charity is due from every bone in the body of every one of you. Every utterance of Allah’s glorification is an act of charity. Every utterance of praise of Him is an act of charity, every utterance of profession of His Oneness is an act of charity, every utterance of profession of His Greatness is an act of charity, enjoining good is an act of charity, forbidding what is disreputable is an act of charity, and two rak’ahs which one prays in the forenoon will suffice.

 

Having said that,

 

Dear faithful, the verse above shows that the entry to good deeds are numerous, therefore dear brothers strive to maximize these good deeds, and ponder over this hadith:

Abu Dharr reported: The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The deeds of my people, good and bad, were presented before me, and I found the removal of something objectionable from the road among their good deeds, and the sputum mucus left unburied in the mosque among their evil deeds.

 

Secondly, democracy day was observed on May 29. However, what is there to celebrate? Every citizen has a role to play in this matter. We must purify our intention as people, correct our ways, train and nurture our children righteously.

 

Finally, it worthwhile to commend this Buhari administration on the fight against corruption effort which was on hand to bring a high profile personality to Justice, the Ex. Governor of Taraba State- Pastor Jolly Nyame who misappropriated #1.6 billion Naira in 2007, equally the Ex Governor of Kaduna State- Mukhtar Ramalan Yero who was convicted to have stolen #750 million Naira from the treasury.

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