Al-Qur’an: Suratul Mudathir 38-56
- Every soul, for what it has earned, will be retained
- Except the companions of the right,
40.[Who will be] in gardens, questioning each other
- About the criminals,
42.[And asking them], “What put you into Saqar?”
43.They will say, “We were not of those who prayed,
44.Nor did we used to feed the poor.
45.And we used to enter into vain discourse with those who engaged [in it],
46.And we used to deny the Day of Recompense
- Until there came to us the certainty.”
48.So there will not benefit them the intercession of [any] intercessors.
49.Then what is [the matter] with them that they are, from the reminder, turning away
- As if they were alarmed donkeys
51.Fleeing from a lion?
52.Rather, every person among them desires that he would be given scriptures spread about.
53.No! But they do not fear the Hereafter.
54.No! Indeed, the Qur’an is a reminder
55.Then whoever wills will remember it.
56.And they will not remember except that Allah wills. He is worthy of fear and adequate for [granting] forgiveness.
The title chosen by Dr. Wahbatu Zuhaili in his tafseer muneer for these verses is: The conversation between the righteous and the criminals
Cause of revelation (سبب النزول) Verse 52:
Abu Jahl and some groups from Quraysh said: Oh Muhammad! We will never believe in you until you bring a book from the heaven for each of us with the title: From the Lord of the worlds to so and so commanding us to follow you
Source:البحرالمحيط: 8/ 381
These verses informed us about the event of the Day of Judgment:
- Judgment will be individual. Criminals will be retained for questioning and punishment while the righteous (after his/her brief appearance before Allah) will be forgiven of mistakes and rewarded with bliss.
- Judgment will be according to the deeds of individual. People of righteousness will be saved from punishment and admitted into the pleasure of Allah while the criminals will be destroyed due to their corruption in faith and deeds.
- The people of the right side are the believers who will receive their books (of life records maintained by the two angels) in their right hands, they will not be retained (as criminals) to account for their actions since their correct believes and many righteousness with sincerity has wiped out their mistakes with the little left to be interceded for.
- In their places in paradise with pleasure and tranquility, the believers will be shown the calamity and agony of the criminals in hell as an added visual enjoyment. The disbelievers enjoyed mocking the believers while the later obey the commandments of Allah in this life (example: Q5 v 57 & 58).
- The believers will ask the criminals(in order to increase them in regret and pains): What has caused you to enter hell? Their replies will be as in verses 42-47
- The “certainty” referred to in verse 47 is “death”.
- The intercession of whom Allah has permitted to intercede (the prophets, the angels and the devotedly righteous believers) will not be extended to these criminals (who have committed the crimes mentioned). This is because their fate of inhabiting hell has been sealed.
- Allah ended the chapter with some rhetorical questions elaborating on the foolishness in turning away from His clear guidance which the messengers have brought and some reminders as tonics for those who wish to take heed.
Culled from tafsir muneer by Dr. Wahbatu Zuhaili