English Khutbah 12 August 2016

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL
BEING THE THIRD SERMON FOR THE MONTH OF DHUL-QA’DAH 9/D. QA’DAH/1437AH (12/SEPT/2016CE)

PREREQUISITES AND RULINGS OF HAJJ .
All Praises belong to Allah Who commanded veneration of the sanctity of hajj, as a pointer to the piety of the hearts. He made hajj the distinguishing symbol of Islam from all other ideologies. Allah says: (ذَلِكَ وَمَنْ يُعَظِّمْ شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِنْ تَقْوَى الْقُلُوبِ) “That [is so]. And whoever honors the symbols of Allah – indeed, it is from the piety of hearts. “ (22: 32). We celebrate His praises and seek help and guidance from Him. We believe in Him and put our trust in Him. Whom Allah guides surely is guided and whom He misleads, surely you will find no one to guide or protect him. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah alone, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger, who said: “Whoever performed Hajj and did not commit immoral act and disobedience, returns (home purified of sins as) as the day his mother bore him,” (Bukhari, and Muslim). Peace and blessings of Allah be on him, his family, companions and followers until the Day of recompense.

As to what follows,
Servants of Allah, I advise you and myself to fear Allah for that is the goal expected from hajj rites and other forms of worship. Allah says:
“الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلاَ رَفَثَ وَلاَ فُسُوقَ وَلاَ جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللّهُ وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُوْلِي الأَلْبَابِ ”
“Hajj is [during] well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of ihram], there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj. And whatever good you do – Allah knows it. And take provisions, but indeed, the best provision is fear of Allah. And fear Me, O you of understanding.)” {2: 197}

Brothers and Sisters in Islam, we shall today continue our discussion on- PREREQUISITES AND RULINGS OF HAJJ.

Prerequisites for Hajj
There is a consensus among jurists concerning the prerequisites that must be found in a person for Hajj to be incumbent on him:
-1- He must be a Muslim.
-2- He must be an adult.
-3- He must be of a sound state of mind.
-4- He must be free.
-5- He must have the necessary power and ability.

Anyone lacking any of these conditions is not obligated to perform Hajj. All these conditions, that is, being a Muslim, being of adult age and of sound mind, being free, and possessing the power to discharge a duty are equally valid with respect to all other forms of worship in Islam. This is based on a hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) which says: “Three persons are not to be held accountable: a sleeping person until he awakes, a minor until he comes of age, and a mentally disturbed person until he regains his reason.”
Freedom is an essential prerequisite for Hajj, for this worship needs time as well as financial ability. A slave lacks both, for all his time is spent in the service of his master, and financially he lacks the ability to undertake this obligation. The Qur’an says: “Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah – those who can afford the journey” (3.97).

THE ABILITY TO PERFORM HAJJ – WHAT DOES IT IMPLY?
The ability to perform Hajj, which is one of its essential conditions, includes the following:
-1- A person must be healthy and physically fit. If one is disabled by old age or a disease that is incurable or is unable to perform Hajj for some other similar reason, he may, if he is financially capable, assign someone else to perform Hajj on his behalf and at his expense.

-2- The journey to Hajj must be safe so that the pilgrim’s life and possessions are safe and secure from any danger. If one is afraid for one’s life from highwaymen or an epidemic or if one is afraid to be robbed of one’ s possessions, then such a one is deemed as one of those who cannot afford the journey for Hajj. There is, however, a difference of opinion among scholars regarding the entry fees and other charges levied on pilgrims. Can a person be excused and reckoned as unable financially to perform Hajj because of these charges? AshShafi’i and others are of the view that the presence of these levies does qualify a person to be classified as unable to perform Hajj, even though the levy involved may be paltry. The Maliki scholars disagree for they do not regard this as a sufficient reason for a person to be deemed as unable to perform Hajj, unless the amount involved is too exorbitant or is demanded repeatedly.

-3- One must possess the necessary provision and also the requisite means of journey. Necessary provision here means that the intending pilgrim must have sufficient supplies for himself as well as for his family that he leaves behind. These supplies include sufficient and adequate clothing, housing, means of trav eling, and tools for the pursuit of his trade or profession besides the financial means for the journey. (The person intending to perform Hajj should not sell his clothes, his personal belongings, or his house–even if they were abundant to get money for Hajj) Means of traveling imply that which enables him to go to Hajj and come back, whether it is by land, by sea, or by air. This concerns those who live far from Makkah and cannot walk there.
As for those who live in the vicinity of Makkah, this condition does not apply, for they are so close that they can go for Hajj on foot.

Some ahadith explain the Qur’anic words “those who can afford the journey,” (Qur’an 3.97) as meaning provision of food and means of journey. Anas reports that the Prophet (peace be upon him) when once asked about the meaning of “those who can afford” said: “It means possessing means of sustenance and transportation.” (Ad-Daraqutni considers this hadith sound) Al-Hafiz remarks: “Most probably its chain of transmitters is not traceable to the Prophet (peace be upon him). Tirmizhi as well has reported it on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar but its chain of transmitters is weak. Abdul Haqq remarked: “All its chains of transmitters are weak.” Ibn Al-Munzhir says: “It is not traceable to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the correct position is that it is a sound but incompletely transmitted hadith whose chain of authorities does not go
back to the Prophet (peace be upon him).”
Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) once said: “He who possesses sufficient provisions and means of journey for the performance of Hajj and yet does not do so, let him die the death of a Jew or a Christian.” For Allah says in the Qur’ an: “Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah – those who can afford the journey.” (Transmitted by Tirmizhi, but among the narrators of this hadith are included “Halal” ibn Abdullah, who is unknown, and “Al-Harith” whom Ash-Sha’abi and others have described as a liar)

Hajj of a Woman
Hajj is obligatory both for women and men alike; they must perform it whenever they meet the above mentioned prerequisites for it. In the case of a woman it is essential that she be accompanied by her husband or some other mahram (Al-Hafiz said in his Al-Fath: “According to the scholars. the condition for being a mahram to a woman is that legally it should be impossible for such a man to ever marry her) relative on the journey for Hajj.
Ibn ‘Abbas reports: “I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying: ‘A man must never be alone with a woman unless there is a mahram with her. A woman also may not travel with anyone except a mahram relative.’ A man stood up and asked: ‘O Prophet of Allah! My wife has gone for Hajj while I am enlisted for such and such a battle, what should I do?” The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied, ‘Go and join your wife in Hajj.” (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim; the words given here are of Muslim’s. This order underlines something desirable; it does not obligate the husband or the mahram to travel with the woman, if there is no one else but him. No one is obligated to give up his convenience so that another person might do what is not required of him)
Yahya bin ‘Abbad reported that a woman from Iraq wrote to Ibrahim AnNakh’i: “I have not yet performed the prescribed Hajj; for although I am rich, I have no mahram who may accompany me on this trip.” He wrote her back: “You are one of those whom Allah has not given the means to perform (Hajj).” Abu Hanifah, Al-Hassan, At-Thauri, Ahmad and Ishaq all hold a similar view on this issue.
Al-Hafiz says: “Among the Shafi’ite scholars the most commonly accepted opinion in this regard is that a woman may travel with her husband, or one of her mahram relatives, or a group of trustworthy women, or even one such (trusted) woman companion. According to one view, reported by Al-Karabisi and recorded as sound in Al-Muhazhib, a woman may travel by herself provided the way to Hajj is secure and safe. This applies to both Hajj and ‘Umrah.
It is reported in Subul as-Salaam: “A group of scholars hold that an old woman may travel without being accompanied by any mahram relative.”
This permission for a woman to travel without a mahram in the company of trusted companions or
when the journey to Hajj is safe is supported by what is reported by Bukhari from ‘Adi ibn Hatem, who says: “I was with the Prophet (peace be upon him) when a man came to him and complained of poverty.
Another man complained about highway robbery. Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: ‘O ‘Adi! Have you seen the city of Hira in Iraq?’ I said: ‘No, but I have heard about it.’ The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: ‘If you lived long enough you will see that a woman will travel from Hira and will perform Tawaf round Ka’bah, and she will have no fear except that of Allah.”
This opinion is supported by the fact that ‘Umar gave permission to the wives of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to perform Hajj while accompanied by ‘Uthman and Abdur-Rahman ibn ‘Awf. ‘Uthman would announce them to people telling them to avoid looking at them or coming close to their camels.
If, however, a woman fails to abide by this provision and performs Hajj alone – without being accompanied by any mahram – her Hajj would still be valid.

The author of Subul as-Salaam says that Ibn Taimiyyah said: “Hajj of a woman without a mahram is valid, and likewise of a person who is financially not able to perform it.”
In brief, those for whom Hajj is not compulsory due to sickness, poverty, fear of highway robbery, or in the case of a woman because no mahram is available to accompany her, if these people nonetheless perform Hajj, it will be credited to their account.

The Day of Tar’wiyah
The day of Tarwiyah is the eighth day of Dhul-Hijja. That name ( the Day of Tarwiyah) is traced back to the fact that pilgrims used to drink water to fill their thirst in Mecca and then they proceed to Mina for at that time there was no water in Mina.
– On the 8th of Zhul-Hij jah. those who had put off their ihram after making ‘Umrah, should again put on ihram to perform pilgrimage, and then head to Mina with those who combine Hajj and ‘Umrah. It is sunnah to offer the five daily prayers in Mina and to spend the night of the 9th of Zhul-Hijjah there.
It is also sunnah not to leave Mina for ‘Arafah until after the sunrise, and not to enter ‘Arafah until the sun begins to decline, and after offering both Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers, which the Prophet (peace be upon him) offered at Namira which is not a part of ‘Arafah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not enter his quarters at ‘Arafah until after offering Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers. Moreover, it is also sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to offer some supererogatory (nawafil) prayers in between these two prayers.
The imam should give a sermon before the prayer, which is one of the sunnah sermons in pilgrimage.
The second sermon is given by the imam on the 7th of Zhul-Hijjah after Zuhr prayer in the Ka’bah.

The third of these sunnah sermons is delivered on the 10th of Zhul-Hijjah, the day of slaughtering. And the fourth sermon is given on the day the people leave (yawm an-nafr al awwal)–the 11th day of Zhul-Hijjah.

In the hadith of Jabir bn Abdullah reported by Muslim describing the Pilgrimmage of the holy Prophet, peace be upon him, we could deduce some important manners and etiquette for performing Hajj and ‘Umrah including:

-1- It is better to spend the time at ‘Arafah riding one’s mount.
-2- It is better to stand by the rocks or close to them as the Prophet (peace be upon him) did.
-3- One should face Qiblah while in ‘Arafah.
-4- One must stay at one’s quarters in ‘Arafah until sunset.
-5- One should make supplications to Allah, raising one’s hands to one’s chest, and after the sunset
calmly and quietly leave ‘Arafah. And if one is in a leading position one should ask others to do likewise.
-6- Upon arriving at Al-Muzdalifah, one should combine Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers with one azhan
and two iqamahs.
-7- One may not offer any nawafil prayers in between these two prayers. There is consensus among
Muslim scholars about combining these two prayers. They differ, however, concerning the reason for it.
Some claim that it is a part of the rites of the Hajj, while others say it is a permission granted to them, because
they are traveling.

The Second Sermon
Praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad, his household, companions and all those who follow his footsteps till the day of judgement.

Dear brothers and sisters in Islam, the United Nations commemorates the INTERNATIONAL YOUTH DAY on 12th August as an annual event.
Brothers of faith, Islam confirms and recognises the value of time, and bearing its responsibility before Allah on the Day of Resurrection, stressing the four basic questions that will be asked on the day of reckoning- two of which centres on time. It was narrated by Mu’az bin Jabal that the Prophet peace be upon him said: “The feet of the servant (of Allah) will not move on the Day of Resurrection, until he is asked about four habits: his age as he spent it, and his youth in what has he expended it, and his money from where he acquired it, and in what has he spent it, and about his  knowledge, what has he done with it” (Narrated by al-Bazzar and Tabraaniy).
The Youth stage in life:
The youth stage is one of the most dangerous stages in life. It is a stage of life, productivity, intense passion and enthusiasm full of strong determination. A stage of strength and power situated between the two weak stages; infancy and old age as described thus-. Allah says: (الله الذي خلقكم من ضعف ثم جعل من بعد ضعف قوة ثم جعل من بعد قوة ضعفا وشيبة يخلق ما يشاء وهو العليم القدير) “Allah is the one who created you from weakness, then made after weakness strength, then made after strength weakness and white hair. He creates what He wills, and He is the Knowing, the Competent.” (30: 54)
The verse clear underpins the importance and concern attached to the resourceful stage of youth in life.
The wealth of a nation or people is not only the composite resources of the earth or the physical spread or the gold, or silver, or the stacked funds in the foreign reserves or World Bank as many ignorantly think, rather the real wealth is the human resources.
Human being is the greatest wealth, and the youth are the most important set of the human resources.
Therefore, if you wish to know the future of a nation, then know the role of the youth, what are they preoccupy them? Who are their role models? What are their goals in life? What do they do? What do they think about? What is the focus of their sittings and discourse? It is imperative for the Muslims to be concerned about the role of the youths and the importance of this stage in life as they shall be put to question about it before Allah on the day of judgement. Four questions of which two centre on time- the age in general and the age of the youth in particular.
The Prophet (pbuh) said: “The feet of the servant (of Allah) will not move on the Day of Resurrection, until he is asked about four habits: his age as he spent it, and his youth in what has he expended it, and his money from where he acquired it, and in what has he spent it, and about his  knowledge, what has he done with it” (Narrated by al-Bazzar and Tabraaniy).
These are the years of life, years of strength, years of affluent passion, years of determination … every person should prepare answers to these questions.
There are some who spent their youth ages in obedience to Allah, guided by Allah to be reared in a righteous environment, they knew no sin, they are never negligent of obligations, such would be of the seven to be under the shade of Allah on a day when there would be no shade but His: 
“There are seven persons whom Allah will shade on a Day when there is no shade but His. They are …  a young person who grew up in the worship of Allah, … ” (Muslim)    This fact have not disenfranchised those youth engulfed in sins in their youth age, because the doors of repentance is laid opened before them, and of the most beloved before Allah is the youth who repents.
It is not strange for a man to sin against Allah, but it would be strange to persist in sin without turning to repent to Him and seek forgiveness as demonstrated by Adam and Hawaa thus: (ربنا ظلمنا أنفسنا وإن لم تغفر لنا وترحمنا لنكونن من الخاسرين)
“They said, “Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and have mercy upon us, we will surely be among the losers.” (7: 23)

He who was not grown on obedience and worship in Allah, should strive to be of the other group that repent from sins as “Verily Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves.” (2:222)

Role of the Youths in national reformation
1- Role towards self and others: He should be concerned about his body to ensure its soundness for that assures a good physical and mental completeness. He should not move close to alcohol, lahw in order that he would not be afflicted with downing of resolve in good character and bodily disfunction. The Prophet – pbuh- said: “Avoid intoxicants, for it is the key to all evil.” Allah says: Say, “My Lord has only forbidden immoralities – what is apparent of them and what is concealed – and sin, and oppression without right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know.” (7: 33)

He should as well strive passionately to strengthen his will or drive and that gives him courage that assures his self esteem, he would not submit to any form of slavery or repugnant traditions.
The youth should strive to improve their level of civilization, social status, selecting shariah compliant occupation to ultimately safeguard his livelihood. Allah says: (﴿هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ ذَلُولًا فَامْشُوا فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُوا مِنْ رِزْقِهِ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ﴾ [الملك:67\15]) “ It is He who made the earth tame for you – so walk among its slopes and eat of His provision – and to Him is the resurrection.” (67: 15) The Prophet-pbuh- said: “No Muslim cultivate a land, or plants and a person or beast or bird eats of it except that it be a charity for him.” This shows the prophet’s conviction that legitimate job is in the status of jihad in the way of Allah, while joblessness is a vice. A scholar once said: “Verily joblessness is one of the evil vices, no, but it is the mother of all vices.  (67: 15)
Of the role of the youth towards others is that they should shun every tendencies of envy, hatred, backbiting, and calumny and substitute that with lofty affection for others such as love for relatives, especially parents in fulfillment of the following quranic injunction: (﴿وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْنًا عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ ﴾ [لقمان:31\14]) “And We have enjoined upon man [care] for his parents. His mother carried him, [increasing her] in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning is in two years. Be grateful to Me and to your parents; to Me is the [final] destination.” (31: 14)
It is imperative to select good companions as partners to confide in, the prophet gave a parable regarding this: “Abu Musa reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The similitude of good company and that of bad company is that of the owner of musk and of the one (iron-smith) blowing bellows, and the owner of musk would either offer you free of charge or you would buy it from him or you would. smell its pleasant odour, and so far as one who blows the. bellows is concerned, he would either burn your clothes or you shall have to smell its repugnant smell.” (Muslim). Good companion and friendship are two fundamentals that could ward off falling into the pit of lowly desires.

Role towards the nation
It is obligatory on the youth to strive towards the actualization of glory for the nation, this is a noble responsibility. It is the height of sin to jettison the role to the nation. True patriotism flows with ardent love for our nation, with full commitment to its growth. The Prophet- pbuh 
The Messenger-pbuh has heard the description of Makkah from a wise man and he shed tears as a form response of nostalgia to it. He said: “O the wise one, Let the hearts be stable” (Ar-Rasail- Imam, Hassan al-Banna- p : 103.) This is therecommendation of Islam, that a person should sacrifice with his everything for the nation, to project benefits for coming generations, in order to preserve the unity, teachings and sanctities.
The bottom line is that youth is the latent strength of the nation, and the basis of its development and advancement. Therefore, they should work to tap every relevant means to reform and restructure the nation and prepare it for the future challenges, where the nation benefit from all aspects including; political, social, religious and economic aspects.

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