IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL
BEING THE FIFTH SERMON FOR THE MONTH OF DHUL-HIJJAH 30/D.HIJJAH/1437AH (2/SEPT/2016CE)
RULES AND ETIQUETES OF THE UDH’HIYYAH
All Praises belong to Allah Who has bestowed both apparent and non-apparent favours on us, and made the animals of grazing livestock subservient to us. Allah says:
وَالْبُدْنَ جَعَلْنَاهَا لَكُمْ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ فَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا صَوَافَّ فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ جُنُوبُهَا فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْقَانِعَ وَالْمُعْتَرَّ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرْنَاهَا لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ (36) لَنْ يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَكِنْ يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَى مِنْكُمْ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ (37)”
“And the camels and cattle We have appointed for you as among the symbols of Allah; for you therein is good. So mention the name of Allah upon them when lined up [for sacrifice]; and when they are [lifeless] on their sides, then eat from them and feed the needy and the beggar. Thus have We subjected them to you that you may be grateful. Their meat will not reach Allah, nor will their blood, but what reaches Him is piety from you. Thus have We subjected them to you that you may glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and give good tidings to the doers of good. ” (22: 36-37)
We celebrate His praises and seek help and guidance from Him. We believe in Him and put our trust in Him. Whom Allah guides surely is guided and whom He misleads, surely you will find no one to guide or protect him. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah alone, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger, who said: “The son of Adam does no act that is most beloved before Allah as the slaughtering on the day of sacrifice. The animal shall come on the day of resurrection with its horns, furs, and hooves. And verily the blood will appear in the presence of Allah before it drops on the ground, thus make people happy with it.” (Tirmidhi)”. O Allah! Bestow peace and blessings on him, his family, companions and followers until the Day of recompense.
As to what follows,
Servants of Allah, I advise you and myself to fear Allah for that is the main objective of acts of worship sacrifice included. Allah says thus:
لَنْ يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَكِنْ يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَى مِنْكُمْ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
Their meat will not reach Allah, nor will their blood, but what reaches Him is piety from you. Thus have We subjected them to you that you may glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and give good tidings to the doers of good.
Brothers in faith, here is the last sermon in the month of Dhul-Qa’dah. We discussed last week on the obligations of the first ten days in dhul hijjah one of which is the Udh’hiyya, thus today’s topic is Rules and Etiquetes of the Udh’hiyya.
The sacrifice is a well-established tradition in Islam. Allah says: (فصل لربك وانْحر) (So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone] (89: 1-2)
Anas bn Malik said: “The Prophet slaughtered two horned fat rams with his hand, he then mention the name of Allah and magnify Him and he placed his leg on their sides.”
The Udh’hiyyah: The Udh’hiyyah is the sacrificial animals slaughtered on the day of slaughtering till the last day of Ayyam Tashreeq.
The Ruling: It is regarded as an emphatic sunnah; the performer is rewarded but he who does not has commit no sin. In Al-Mughniy: it is said that Muslims are unanimous on the legislation of the udh’hiyyah.
It represents a show of gratitude for Allah’s favour and blessings including the demonstration of the concern of the rich towards the poor as well as the commemoration of the Sunnah of Prophet Ibrahim (AS) and that of Prophet Muhammad (AS).
The time frame of the sacrifice: spans between after the eid prayer till the sunset of the thirteenth day of Dhul-hijjah. It is improper and unacceptable to delay the sacrifice beyond or fast track it earlier than the prescribed time.
In the Prophet’s sermon on the day of sacrifice he said: “The first thing we shall start our day with on this day is prayer, then we return to slaughter, whoever slaughters in that manner has correspond with our sunnah (tradition), whoever slaughters before (prayer), then it is only (preparing) meat for his family” (Bukhari). He also said: “The days of Tashreeq are days of slaughtering”
Who should have the sacrifice: The sacrifice is for the living person and his household. It is as well permissible to include the dead in it except there is an existing testament for the dead that a sacrifice is made on his behalf.
Recommended age of the sacrifice: The animals to be slaughtered should be grown-up ones as follow: Camel: 5 years, Cow- 2 years, Sheep- 6 Months and Goat- 1 year.
Traits of Non-permissible sacrifice: In addition, the sacrificial animals must be free from any blemish as clearly defined by the Prophet. Narrated by Baraa bn ‘Aazib: “Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are four that will not do for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose lameness is obvious and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones .” (Abu Dawud). There are milder defects that do not disqualify an animal, but it is makruh to sacrifice such animals, such as an animal with a horn or ear missing, chopped buttocks or udder, or an animal with slits in its ears or tail, or one with displaced teeth etc. Udhiyah is an act of worship to Allah, and Allah is Good and accepts only that which is good. Whoever honors the rites of Allah, this has to do with the piety of the heart.
The best of udh’hiyyah is the fattest, with more flesh, and higher price. The owner should eat of it, and share with friends and neighbours as gifts.
- It should be owned exclusively by the owner without any attachment of other people’s right such as stolen property etc.
- It must be one of the recommended sacrificial animals which are the camel, cow, and the sheep which consists of the goat, male or female, castrated or potent.
- It should have reached the age stipulated in sharee’ah, which is six months for a sheep and the age at which the animal is considered to be an adult for any other animal, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not sacrifice anything but an adult animal, unless it is difficult for you, in which case you may slaughter a six-month old lamb (jadh’ah).” Narrated by Muslim. This evidence reveals the animals must be grown-up and here are the acceptable ages for each of them: Camel: 5 years, Cow- 2 years, Sheep- 6 Months and Goat- 1 year.
- In addition to these qualities, the sacrificial animals must be free from any blemish as clearly defined by the Prophet. Narrated by Baraa bn ‘Aazib: “Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are four that will not do for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose lameness is obvious and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones .” (Abu Dawud). Other defects in the same context that should be avoided include; One that is blind in both eyes; One that is unable to walk because of a defect; One that has had one of its forelegs or hind legs cut off;One that has suffered something that could kill it, such as strangulation or a violent blow or a head-long fall or goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, until the danger suffered has passed; One that has eaten more than it can stand leading to stomach disorder and vomiting, until the danger has passed; and one that has encountered difficulty in giving birth, until all danger has passed.
Recommendation for one who intends to slaughter
Whoever intend to make the sacrifice should not take away any of his hair or clip his finger nails, when the month of Dhil-hijjah starts. “When any one of you intending to sacrifice the animal enters in the month (of Dhu’l-Hijja) he should not get his hair or nails touched (cut) until he slaughters” (Muslim)
Conditions of Slaughtering
- The slaughterer must be sane. The slaughtering of an insane person or an intoxicated person, or a child, or an adult that is not conscious is not permissible.
- The slaughterer should be a Muslim or of the people of the book- Jew of Christian. For the Muslim, it is acceptable to male or female, just or dissolute, in state of purity or impurity. But for the Jew and Christian, it is unanimously agreed that their slaughter is permissible as stated in the verse: “…and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them.” (Q5: 5) . The Prophet-pbuh- also ate of the meat presented to him by a Jewish woman.
- The intention to make the sacrifice in accordance with the verse: (except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death]) – Slaughtering is an endeavour that requires intention for the act, but where he did not intend to slaughter, then sacrifice is not permissible, for instance where he kills an animal that jumps on him suddenly in an attempt to save himself.
- The slaughtered animal must not be for other than Allah, in which case, the animal would not be permissible for consumption. Such as what is killed to venerate idols, or the dead, or a king, or father, etc. Allah says: “and those which are sacrificed on stone altars” (5: 3)
- No other name besides Allah’s name should be mentioned while slaughtering. Such as saying: In the name of the prophet, or Jibreel, or any other. Such act renders the sacrifice unfit for consumption even where he added the name of Allah with the others. Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as stating that Allah the Most High and Exalted said: I am the One, One Who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one whom he associates with Allah.
- To mention the name of Allah when slaughtering saying: Allah says: “So eat of that [meat] upon which the name of Allah has been mentioned, if you are believers in His verses. (6: 118) And do not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has not been mentioned, for indeed, it is grave disobedience.” (6: 121). The prophet said: “Eat of what the blood flows (by slaughtering) and to which the name of Allah was mentioned.” It is not acceptable to neglect any of mentioning of the name of Allah deliberately or unknowingly, or slaughtering of the animal without the blood flowing out, knowingly or unknowingly, because both were mentioned in the verses as conditions for the permissibility of the sacrifice. However, for the dumb person who could not speak, it suffices for him to make gesticulate, Allah says” “And fear Allah according to your ability.”
- That the instrument of slaughtering be made sharpened objects that could cause blood flow, such as iron, stone, glass, etc. ” The Prophet said, “Use whatever causes blood to flow, and eat the animals if the name of Allah has been mentioned on slaughtering them. Do not slaughter with teeth or fingernails and I will tell you why: It is because teeth are bones (i.e. cannot cut properly) and fingernails are the tools used by the Ethiopians (whom we should not imitate for they are infidels).” (Bukhari)
- To make blood flow by the slaughtering process, the prophet- pbuh said: “Use whatever causes blood to flow, and eat the animals if the name of Allah has been mentioned on slaughtering them.” if it impossible to subdue the animal, like the erratic one, or one fallen in a well or a cave, it is enough to pierce and cause blood flow in any portion of the animal’s body. More importantly, wherever is faster to ease its death and lesser pain.
- The slaughterer must be permitted to do so according to the shari’ah.
Etiquettes of Slaughtering
- He should face the Qiblah with the animal at the time of slaughtering.
- He must slaughter the animal in a good manner, which is by quickly and firmly passing a sharpened blade over the neck area.
Some scholars hold the view that this etiquette is obligatory based on the implication found in the Prophet’s saying: “Verily Allaah has prescribed proficiency in everything. So when you kill, kill proficiently. And when you sacrifice, sacrifice proficiently. Each of you should sharpen his blade and lessen the pain inflicted on his sacrificial offering.” [Reported by Muslim]. This opinion is the correct view.
- The slaughter of a camel must be done by cutting the area just below the neck and above the chest. This is known as nahr. As for all other types of animals, their necks should be sliced.
A camel should be slaughtered while standing and with its (front) left leg tied. If it is difficult to do it this way, the camel can be slaughtered while kneeling.
As for all of the other animals, they are to be slaughtered while lying flat on their left side. However, if the one slaughtering is a lefty, he may use his left hand and lay the animal down on its right side. This is so long as doing it this way is easier upon the animal and more convenient for the one slaughtering.
It is also prescribed for him to place his foot on the collar of the animal to give him better control. As for making the animal kneel and tying its legs together, there is no basis for this in the Sunnah. Some scholars mentioned that one of the reasons why the legs should not be tied is so that the outflow of blood can increase as a result of the animal’s constant motion and instability.
- The throat and esophagus of the animal should be cut in addition to its jugular veins. For more on this, refer to the discussion on this under the eighth condition of slaughtering.
- The blade should be concealed from the view of the animal when sharpening it. This means that the animal should not see the blade until the time of the actual slaughter.
- One should glorify Allaah (by saying Allaahu Akbar) after mentioning His Name (by saying Bismillaah) when slaughtering.
- One should name the person whom the sacrificial offering (udhiyah) or ‘aqeeqah is being performed for after mentioning Allaah’s Name and glorifying Him. He should also ask Allaah to accept it from him.
So for example, he should say: “In the Name of Allaah, Allaah is the Greatest. O Allaah, this is from You and for You on behalf of me” if he is performing the slaughter for himself or “…on behalf of so and so” if the slaughter is being done on behalf of someone else. And he should say: “O Allaah, accept this from me” if he is performing the slaughter for himself or “…accept this from so and so” if the slaughter is being done on behalf of someone else.
Disliked practices of slaughtering: It is disliked or forbidden to slaughter with blunt knife, or sharpen the knife in front of the animals, or slaughter one before the other or engage in an act that could increase the pain of the slaughtered animal before the last breadth, such as butchering the flesh, cutting the neck etc.
Slaughtering according to the Sunnah:
Place the left side of the sheep on the ground facing the qiblah after sharpening the knife. Then say Q6:79, and 162-163 (Indeed, I have turned my face toward He who created the heavens and the earth, inclining toward truth, and I am not of those who associate others with Allah. Say, “Indeed, my prayer, my rites of sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the worlds. No partner has He. And this I have been commanded, and I am the first [among you] of the Muslims.”) Then say: BISMILLAH WALLAHU AKBAR, ALLAHUMMA HAZHA MINKA WALAKA. meaning: In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest, O Allah this is from You and it is for You ..and the animal should be slaughtered at once swiftly.
Praise be to Allah. May Allah’s peace and blessings be bestowed on our noble Prophet Muhammad.
Dear servants of Allah, the Nigerian security forces have developed a security operation in the Niger Delta code named “Operation Crocodile Smile.”
The operation aims to decimate and eliminate all criminal activities of Niger Delta Avengers who have been vandalizing the oil pipelines installations, with a colossal damage running into millions of Naira in the geopolitical zone. In the effort of the security forces some level of achievements were made on Friday, 26th August, 2016, whereby five of the militants were killed, 23 arrested, with some ammunition recovered from the hands of the fleeing militants.
Dear Muslims, we commend the efforts of our security forces over the level of achievements so far, and beseech Allah to support and guide them to victory.
We look forward to the dialogue that is about to come to place between the Niger Delta Avengers and the Federal government and pray it come out successful.