Hadith:At-Taqwa (The Fear of Allah)
عن أبي إمامة صدي بن عجلان الباهي رضي الله عنه قال: سمعت رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم يخطب في حجة الوداع فقال: (اتقواالله، وصلوا خمسكم، وصوموا شهركم، وأدوا زكاة أموالكم، وأطيعوا أمراءكم، تدخلوا جنة ربكم) رواه الترمذي، في آخر كتاب الصلاة وقال: حديث حسن صحيح.
IbnHajalaanAlbaaheer (may Allah be pleased with him) said I heard the prophet of Allah admonish the people during the farewell pilgrimage (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say: “Fear Allah, observe your five, fast your month, pay the due on your wealth, obey the custodians of your affairs, you will enter the paradise of your Lord”
- Hijjatul Wada’i(Farewell pilgrimage): It was called so because the prophet performed it towards the end of his mission. Also, because he gave his most comprehensive farewell speech in it.
- Kamsakum (Your five): It refers to the five daily solats. They weren’t mentioned explicitly because they were well-known, being a pillar of the religion and a daily routine.
- Sha’rakum (Your month): In the singular, referring to the well-known month of Ramadan.
- Zakaat of your wealth: “your wealth” was attached to the command in order to signify the type of wealth that zakat will be accepted on. No zakat on borrowed or stolen properties because we were not the owners.
- Custodians of your affairs: Those at the helms of affairs.
- The prophet delivered sermons to the people on the day of Arafat and on the Day of Nahr (slaughtering of feast-ram; eid al-adha). This is a proof for the permissibility or desirability of taking the advantage of special events and gatherings to admonish the people. Every occasion or event has admonition suitable for it; the people have sacrificed a significant amount of their wealth and time to perform the hajj; these types of admonitions from the prophet (as contained in the hadith) were most suitable to summarize the religion and keep the people firm on the religion they have come to perfect with hajj. Furthermore, hajj create an avenue for intercontinental conference of Muslim nations, the prophet gave hint on the people’s responsibility to their government.
- The prophet started his talks with the admonition to fear Allah because it is the foundation upon which genuine and noble characters were based, it is only with it that acts can have their true meaning. Only acts that emanate or guided with the fear of Allah will have a good and rewardable end.
- The prophet addressed the admonitions to the humankind in general even though his audience consisted only of Muslims who came to perform a pillar of their religion. He followed the same pattern which Allah used in some parts of the Qur’an among which is Q2:21. The message of Islam and the messengership of the prophet extend to all of humankind. Muslims are also responsible for the spread of the message of guidance.
- Taqwa is an internal force that can only be appreciated through its manifestation in words and actions from the limbs. Sincere utterances and actions are guided by taqwa.
- Ali ibn Abi Taalib defined Taqwa as all the following:
- The fear of the Mighty One (Allah)
- Implementation of what was revealed
- Contentment with the little (sustenance from Allah according to His decree)
- Preparation for the Inevitable Day (of Resurrection)
- Successful manifestation of taqwa will result in constant consciousness of the limits of Allah up to the minor ones.
- Abu Darda stated that taqwa will make the one who possesses it to be conscious of the limits of Allah until he leaves some part of the halal (permissible acts) in his awareness on keeping away from what is doubtful.
- The prophet used the second person pronoun (“your”) in most part of this message. These statements were carefully worded to indicate and give the following meaning:
- You are responsible to fulfill this command individually. Mine will not be sufficient for you. This obligation is on each and every one of you.
- The reward is for you according to how you performed it.
- A literary style of communication to give some sense of responsibility to the listener.
- The prophet also commanded that the leaders must be followed without expanding further on it. This was because it has been explained well enough in the Shariah. The following are only few explanations on the types and conditions of followership in Islam.
- Unconditional followership is only for Allah and the prophet.
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلالا مُبِينًا
It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error.
- The followership of an elected or appointed leader is not on the same level as that of Allah and the prophet.
O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.
- There is no followership on an instruction from a leader which is against the limits of Allah
- “Custodians of your affairs” refer to the following eleven categories of people:
- People in authority – elected or appointed.
- The four Rightly Guided Caliphs
- The sahabah
- The Muhajiroon and the Ansar
- The sahabah and the tabioon
- The intellectuals in authority
- The scholars of Islamic jurisprudence.
- Group leaders of deputations.
- Those of sound knowledge in various sciences. Their advices should be taken in areas where there were no clear contradictions with the text of the shariah
- Generally for any one charged with the responsibility of looking over the affairs of the people. This is the conclusion of majority of Muslims scholars.
Source:vol. 5 pg. 256 تحفة الأحوذي بشرح جامع الترمذي
- The message of God-consciousness was transmitted.
- The establishment of links between faith and actions.
- Steadfastness in life is a cause of bliss in this life and the hereafter.
Fruits of Taqwa
- It assists one to gain the love of Allah in this life and the hereafter.
- It assists one to attain the bliss of Allah in this life and the hereafter (Q7:156).
- A means to gain the support of Allah (Q16:128).
- It is a means of protection for it possessor (Q7:35).
- It illuminates the heart and fortifies it with insights.
- It assist to conquer the challenges of shaytan (Q7:201)
- It strengthen it possessor with the power to do more of righteousness (Q3:179)
- A means of increase in sustenance (Q65:3; Q7:96)
- It make life endeavors easy (Q65:2,4)
- It assists to attain ultimate success in this life and the hereafter (Q7:128; Q11:49).
- It is a quality of the righteous slaves of Allah (Q8:34; Q45:19).
 Reported by Imam Tirmidhi in the book of solat
 Pronounced as “hijjat-ul-wada’i” is more eloquent in the Arabic linguistic pattern as against “hajjat-ul-wada’I”
 O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous.
Allah directed the command to worship without preceding it with a command to have a valid faith which is required for any act of worship to be acceptable.
 An elected or appointed leader is acceptable in the Shariah of Islam. This appointment will be made by a reputable predecessor with a popular acceptance from the Muslims community. The election will be made by the highest council of learned Muslims scholars for public acceptance. Abu Bakr was commissioned as caliph by election among the Quraish and Umar with appointment by Abu Bakr.
If you carefully examine this verse you will notice that the type of conjunction used to connect the obedience to Allah and obedience to the prophet were of the same degree greater than the one used for the people in authority.
Thisis the view of Abdullah ibn Abbas, Abu Huraira, etc
 Abu Bakr Sideeq, Umar bn Kathaab, Uthman bn Afaan, Ali bn Abi Taalib.
 The generation of Muslims after the sahabah