IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL
BEING THE FIRST KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF JUMADAL-THAANIYAH 4/6/1438AH (3 /MARCH/2017CE)
THE PECULIARITIES OF ISLAMIC DISCOURSE IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION (6)
Praise be to Allah, the lord of the worlds, the sustainer of the heavens and earth, the disposer of the affairs of all creation who honoured man with the best prophet. I praise and thank Him for His grace and honour and beseech Him for more. I testify there is no god but Allah alone, the compassionate, the merciful, the generous, the Perpetual Forgiver. I testify that our leader- Muhammad (pbuh) is his servant and messenger, his beloved and chosen one among his creation, the leader of the children of Adam. He is the leader of the messengers, the seal of prophets, the mercy offered to the universe, the illuminating lamp. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his household, companions and whoever follows them till the day of recompense.
Having said that,
Dear Muslims, I enjoin you and I to fear Allah in accordance with the verse:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ ( آل عمران : 102 )
“ O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him].” (3: 102) .
Dear brothers and sisters in Islam this is the first khutbah in the month of Jumaadal- Thaniyah we are continuing our discussion on the theme: The peculiarities of Islamic discourse in the era of globalization. Of the 15 peculiarities of Islamic discourse in the era of globalization as enumerated by Sheikh Yusuf Qardawi, we have discussed five of those. Today we shall focus on the sixth peculiarity which is: “It is enticed by the loftiest model but would not be indifferent to reality.
Of the peculiarities of the Islamic discourse is that it is enticed by the loftiest model which Islam desires for mankind, but it does not forget the reality that people live with in their lives, and are compelled to cope with day and night.
Islam desires an exemplary Muslim individual, an exemplary Muslim family, the exemplary Muslim community, the exemplary Muslim nation, the exemplary Muslim region, and the exemplary Muslim world. However, in addition to the call to exemplariness, it never forgets the reality people live in, individually, family wise, communally, nationally, and internationally. It treats this reality theoretically and practically, recognizing it while trying to elevate man, in his faith, characters, and major goals in life.
Islam long for the exemplary individual who moves away from the forbidden and discharge the obligation, and it persuades towards commitment to the supererogatory. The man with mind alive, with soft feelings, balanced emotion, strong will, visionary mind, upright character, healthy body, good to self and others, passionate of his religion, beneficial to his society, protects his country, guarding his nation, serving his lord, kind to His creatures, making the earth prosperous, upholding His vicegerency, and being the vanguard of His Dawah. He is the exemplary personality mentioned by the Qur’an, recouting his attributes, when it talks about the believers, the pious, the good doers, the men of intellect, and the servants of the most beneficent.
It suffices that you read as example:
(إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ (2) الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ (3) أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا لَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ) The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, their hearts become fearful, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith; and upon their Lord they rely – ( 3 ) The ones who establish prayer, and from what We have provided them, they spend. ( 4 ) Those are the believers, truly. For them are degrees [of high position] with their Lord and forgiveness and noble provision. (8: 2-4).
In the description of the servant of the Most Merciful Allah says: (وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا (63) وَالَّذِينَ يَبِيتُونَ لِرَبِّهِمْ سُجَّدًا وَقِيَامًا (64) وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا (65) إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا (66) وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنْفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَوَامًا (67) …) And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace, ( 64 ) And those who spend [part of] the night to their Lord prostrating and standing [in prayer] ( 65 ) And those who say, “Our Lord, avert from us the punishment of Hell. Indeed, its punishment is ever adhering; ( 66 ) Indeed, it is evil as a settlement and residence.” (25: 63- …)
In describing the pious Allah says: (كَانُوا قَلِيلًا مِنَ اللَّيْلِ مَا يَهْجَعُونَ (17) وَبِالْأَسْحَارِ هُمْ يَسْتَغْفِرُونَ (18) وَفِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ لِلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ)
They used to sleep but little of the night, ( 18 ) And in the hours before dawn they would ask forgiveness, ( 19 ) And from their properties was [given] the right of the [needy] petitioner and the deprived. (51: 17- 19).
Also describing the good doers Allah says: (يُوفُونَ بِالنَّذْرِ وَيَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا كَانَ شَرُّهُ مُسْتَطِيرًا (7) وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ مِسْكِينًا وَيَتِيمًا وَأَسِيرًا (8) إِنَّمَا نُطْعِمُكُمْ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ لَا نُرِيدُ مِنْكُمْ جَزَاءً وَلَا شُكُورًا (9) إِنَّا نَخَافُ مِنْ رَبِّنَا يَوْمًا عَبُوسًا قَمْطَرِيرًا) They [are those who] fulfill [their] vows and fear a Day whose evil will be widespread. ( 8 ) And they give food in spite of love for it to the needy, the orphan, and the captive, ( 9 ) [Saying], “We feed you only for the countenance of Allah. We wish not from you reward or gratitude. ( 10 ) Indeed, We fear from our Lord a Day austere and distressful.” (76: 7-10).
In the hadith qudsiy, the prophet reported Allah says: “My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. “When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks…” (Bukhari).
Many times we see man falls from this high status into the mud of error, thus offending his lord, leaving the command, engaging in the forbidden, that is because man was not created clean as the Angels, and not infallible like the prophets, however, he is a being of mixed components; a handful from the soil, and the breathe from the spirit of Allah. Thus at times, the spiritual element supersedes and he responds to religious stimulus, and at other, the earth element supersedes, and he responds to the desire stimulus.
In recognition of the nature of man and his weakness, and his susceptibility to elevation and downfall, and to purification and dirtiness, Allah says: (وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا (7) فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا (8) قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ زَكَّاهَا (9) وَقَدْ خَابَ مَنْ دَسَّاهَا) “And [by] the soul and He who proportioned it ( 8 ) And inspired it [with discernment of] its wickedness and its righteousness, ( 9 ) He has succeeded who purifies it, ( 10 ) And he has failed who instills it [with corruption].” (92: 7-10)
The human soul is ready for sins as it is ready for piety, but perhaps the willingness for sins is stronger, and that is that was presented first in the verse. The point here is on the human effort; either to purify his soul, strive against it, and then earn success and be triumphant or to corrupt it and leave it to its desires, then it is would not reap except loss and disappointment.
For this reason the Qur’an divides people of the Muslim Ummah- the chosen community given the book to inherit, thus: Allah says: (ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مُقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ) “Then we caused to inherit the Book those We have chosen of Our servants; and among them is he who wrongs himself, and among them is he who is moderate, and among them is he who is foremost in good deeds by permission of Allah. That [inheritance] is what is the great bounty.” (35: 32)
These people are as described by Allah:
- He Who Wrongs Himself: that is the person who is found wanting in discharging the obligations, and committing some prohibitions.
- He Who Is Moderate: He is that who performs the obligation, and does not perpetrate forbidden acts, but do not exceed that level.
- He who is foremost in good deeds: He is the one who increase beyond performing the obligation to doing the desirable deeds, and performs beyond neglecting the forbidden to shunning the doubtful and disliked matters. He moves up, leaving what is considered no objection about, as a caution from falling into what is objectionable.
The one considered as ‘He Who Wrongs Himself’ is an integral part of this Ummah, and the Ummah is not of the Angel, rather Ummah from among the human community, whose nature includes obedience and disobedience, to be right and fall into error.
It is not surprising to see a man sin, his father Adam had sinned earlier; Allah accommodated him and his wife in paradise, and commanded both to eat of the fruits therein as they wish except of a single tree. But Shaytaan never stop to deceive them and beautify the eating until they both fall into the forbidden: (وَعَصَى آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَى) “And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred.” (20: 121).
However, Allah did not leave Adam imprisoned by his fall, or ransomed to his sin, rather He granted him an opportunity to cleanse himself of his sin and its effect through repentance: (ثُمَّ اجْتَبَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ وَهَدَى) “Then his Lord chose him and turned to him in forgiveness and guided [him].” (20: 122) (فَتَلَقَّى آدَمُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ) “Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.” (2: 37)
In that manner Allah bequeath in the children of Adam these two matters: falling into error and cleansing it by repentance: (إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ) “Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves.” (2: 222)
Islam also provide oceans of opportunities for man to purify himself from sins, such as the good deeds that cleanse sin, including the ablution, solat, charity, fast, hajj, umrah, dhikr, and supplication, the word of Allah suffices here: (وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ طَرَفَيِ النَّهَارِ وَزُلَفًا مِنَ اللَّيْلِ إِنَّ الْحَسَنَاتِ يُذْهِبْنَ السَّيِّئَاتِ ذَلِكَ ذِكْرَى لِلذَّاكِرِينَ) “And establish prayer at the two ends of the day and at the approach of the night. Indeed, good deeds do away with misdeeds. That is a reminder for those who remember.” (11: 114).
The Prophet- pbuh- said: “The Jum’ah to (another) Jum’ah, and the five (daily) prayers, and Ramadan to Ramadan; are expiation for what is between them, when the major sins are avoided.”
Islam also places seeking repentance and forgiveness. Tawbah- Repentance cleanses what exists before it, and the seeker of repentance is like one with no sin, and in the hadith: “All the children of Adam are fallible, and the best of all fallible are the seekers of repentance and forgiveness.” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Al-Haakim)
Islam desires a Muslim family that is established on stability, love, kindness, built upon living together in goodness, with each of the spouses discharging his or her responsibility, Allah says: (وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ) “And due to the wives is similar to what is expected of them, according to what is reasonable.” (2: 228)
In addition to the family being built on the role of the parents to ensure proper training of their children, care, and goodness of children to their parent, loving their brothers and sisters, helping one another, tie of kinship, and spending on the relatives. The family in Islam is the extended family comprising the grandparents, uncles, aunts, and their progenies.
Including the relationship between one part of the Ummah with the other; between the leaders and the masses. Many times we see the shariah revealing for man the loftiest example to the closest possible reality and revealing the rule about a matter in clear terms.
Islam wants strong and trustworthy persons to manage its affair as stated thus: (إِنَّ خَيْرَ مَنِ اسْتَأْجَرْتَ الْقَوِيُّ الْأَمِينُ) “One of the women said, “O my father, hire him. Indeed, the best one you can hire is the strong and the trustworthy.” (28: 26). And as said by Yusuf to the Egyptian king: (اجْعَلْنِي عَلَى خَزَائِنِ الْأَرْضِ إِنِّي حَفِيظٌ عَلِيمٌ) “[Joseph] said, “Appoint me over the storehouses of the land. Indeed, I will be a knowing guardian.” (12: 55)
In addition to this, the scholars of fiqh say: When he cannot find the strong and trustworthy, he takes the best of the available options, even when he is not strong and trustworthy, even though the obligation- as said by Ibn Taimiyah- is to work to amend situations till the strong and trustworthy is produced.”
Scholars also say, it is compulsory that the leader of the Muslims and their Judge be knowledgeable, attained the level of Ijtihaad (interpretative judgement) in deduction of laws.
When this matter seems missing or missing in the recent period, they say: “They should take the best available option even when he is not a Mujtahid so that the law would not be inoperative, and that the Ummah would not be without a leader or a judge.
Islam hopes for the knowledgeable lead by peace and tranquility, and people live therein in an atmosphere of understanding and harmony, however, not all a man hopes for that he gets.
Brothers in faith, Islam began its call in peace calling people to Oneness of Allah with wisdom and beautiful admonition, and dialogue in the best manner. The idolaters stood against his path, oppressing those that accepted the religion with several types of harm and torture, to the extent that some died as matyr under the fires of torture, to the extent that they were imprisoned, sanctioned, socially and economically, resulting in feeding on leaves of trees out of hunger.
In the end, Islam was compelled to pick up arm in defense of self in the face of the arms raised against it from the first day to behead and bury it. Allah says: (كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَكُمْ وَعَسَى أَنْ تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ وَعَسَى أَنْ تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ) “Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.
Also Allah says: (أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ (39) الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لَهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا وَلَيَنْصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَنْصُرُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ) “Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory. ( 40 ) [They are] those who have been evicted from their homes without right – only because they say, “Our Lord is Allah.” And were it not that Allah checks the people, some by means of others, there would have been demolished monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which the name of Allah is much mentioned. And Allah will surely support those who support Him. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might.
The Qur’an, with the last statement points to the establishment of a tradition of Allah in societies which the tradition of defense, by which Allah prepares a people to defend another group of people who are incapacitated. Of the reality of Islam is that it recognizes necessity that comes upon man, then it permits the forbidden (in such situation). Four verses of the Qur’an establish this. After the mention of prohibited foods, then Allah says: (فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ) “But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (2: 173) . By this verse, it establishes the exception from the general rule, premised on the rule of necessity or needs that occupy the position of necessities.
Position of religious discourse:
Verily, the right religious discourse is that which observes the reality of people that brings pressure upon them and makes them weak before this reality. It also observes the necessities of people which could make permissible for them the forbidden, and of their needs that could occupy the status of necessities, and does not relate with people as if they are angels, rather, he relates with them as humans who eat food and walk in the markets, pushed by passion, enticed by desires, and being whispered to by Shaytaan, thus they could slip and fall, despite these, they should not lose hope of Allah’s mercy.
In the same vein, it is not proper for the religious discourse to submit to perverted realities, trying to justify it with distorted legislation, rather he should process this reality with appropriate solution till the Ummah is able to cope with it and overcome it. It is compulsory for religious discourse to comply with ensuring balance, recognizing the reality and its nature, but, the Ummah should continuously ensure to aim for the loftiest model, and strive to achieve it, even by a procedural approach, surely he who strives achieves.
All praises are due to Allah. We praise and thank Him, believe and depend on Him. I testify there is no god but Allah alone and I testify that our leader- Muhammad (pbuh) is his servant and messenger. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his household, companions and whoever follows them till the day of recompense.
Allah says: (يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا) “O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah, through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.” (4: 1)
Dear servants of Allah we are using this golden opportunity to analysis the Xenophobic attack that took in south Africa. It was said that the attack happen due to two reasons:
Firstly, is the claim that foreigner are the ones involved in the various criminal activities in South Africa.
Secondly, is that the foreigner are the ones grabbing the employment opportunities that should have been for the citizens.
Honored Muslims, look at this wrong view. We call on the respective international organisations including UNO, particularly AU to do the needful. Likewise the Federal government must stand as her role to defend the Nigerians trapped in this ugly incident in South Africa.
We thank Allah- swt- for the Naira gaining some strength against the dollar in the last few days, may Allah help us sustain this performance.
Finally, we beseech Allah the Exalted, to grant President Muhammadu Buhari better health and return him home safely and to assist him in the discharge of his duties and to guide all his team at all levels to the best of ways.
Oh Allah descend peace; flowing with continuous tranquility and security upon Nigeria and all other Muslim nations. O Allah accept the worship of the pilgrims of hajj and Umrah, and grant us all Your pleasure, And the last of our call will be, “Praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds!”