RAMADAN FASTING: ETIQUETTESAND SUNNAH

In The Name Of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful

BEING THE FIRST KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADAN2/RAMADAN/1439AH (18/MAY/2018CE)

RAMADAN FASTING: ETIQUETTESAND SUNNAH

Praise be unto Allah who decreed fasting on believers making it guard from sins and fire. Allah says:

يَاأَيُّهَاالَّذِينَآمَنُواكُتِبَعَلَيْكُمُالصِّيَامُكَمَاكُتِبَعَلَىالَّذِينَمِنْقَبْلِكُمْلَعَلَّكُمْتَتَّقُونَ (183) ” {البقرة :2\183} , “ شَهْرُرَمَضَانَالَّذِيأُنْزِلَفِيهِالْقُرْآنُهُدًىلِلنَّاسِوَبَيِّنَاتٍمِنَالْهُدَىوَالْفُرْقَانِفَمَنْشَهِدَمِنْكُمُالشَّهْرَفَلْيَصُمْهُوَمَنْكَانَمَرِيضًاأَوْعَلَىسَفَرٍفَعِدَّةٌمِنْأَيَّامٍأُخَرَيُرِيدُاللَّهُبِكُمُالْيُسْرَوَلَايُرِيدُبِكُمُالْعُسْرَ…” {البقرة :2\285}

O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous(183)…  The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful (184). We praise and thank Him, seek His help and guidance, forgiveness and repentance. We seek refuge in Him from the evil of our souls and deeds. Whoever Allah guides is guided and whoever He misled none will mislead Him. I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger who says: “Whoever fast in Ramadan with faith and sincerity, all his former sins will be forgiven” (Agreed upon). May Allah bless him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

 

Thereafter,

I admonish you and myself on the fear of Allah, obedience and striving in righteousness … Allah says:

وَلَدَارُالْآخِرَةِخَيْرٌلِلَّذِينَاتَّقَوْاأَفَلَاتَعْقِلُونَ (109) ” {يوسف : 12\109}

{And the home of the Hereafter is best for those who fear Allah; then will you not reason?.} (12:109).

 

Dear faithful this is the first khutbah in the blessed month of Ramadan, we have discussed some related topics to the month, including Preparation for the month of Ramadan last week, today shall be devoted to the etiquettes of fasting in Ramadan, titled: RAMADAN FASTING: ETIQUETTES AND SUNNAH

 

Etiquettes of fasting:

1- The Pre-dawn meal: it is preferred to eat a pre-dawn meal no matter how little, even a sip of water, and to delay it to the latter part of the night. It is meant to strengthen one for fasting, as stated in the two Sahih thus: Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said: “Eat a pre-dawn meal, for there are blessings in it.”(Al-Bukhari and Muslim.) Al-hakim narrated thus: “Seek support with the pre-dawn meal for the day’s fasting, and with the siesta for the night prayer.” Al-MiqdamibnMadyakrib reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: “You should eat thispre-dawn meal for it is a blessed nourishment.” (An-Nasa’i) The reasonwhy it is a blessing is that it strengthens the fasting person, makes him more energetic, and makes the fasteasier for him.The sunnah would be fulfilled by eating a small or large quantity of food, or even just by drinking a sipof water. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the messenger of Allah said: “The pre-dawn meal is blessed, so do not neglect it even if you only take a sip of water. Verily, Allah and the angels pray for those who have pre-dawn meals.”(Ahmad.)

 

2- To hasten breaking the fast after sunset before the Maghribprayer using dates, or fruits or water, in odd numbers; three or more. Abu Zharr al-Ghafari related that the Prophet said: “My nation will always retain some goodness as long as they hasten breaking the fast and delay eating the pre-dawn meal.”To break the fast before solat is better and it  should be broken with an odd number of dates or, if that is not available, then with some water. Anas reported: “The Messenger of Allah would break his fast with ripe dates before he would pray. If those were not available, he would eat dried dates. If those were not available, he would drink some water.” This hadith is related by Abu Dawud and by al-Hakim, who called it sahih, and by at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan.Sulaimanibn ‘Amr reported that the Prophet said: “If one of you is fasting, he should break his fast with dates. If dates are not available, then with water, for water is purifying.” This is related by Ahmad and by at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassansahih. It is easy to observe the hastening to break the fast when the weather is clear, but in cloudy condition it is essential to be certain the sun is set, to ensure the fast is protected from being nullified. Imam Shafi’ views that it is forbidden to do wisal () in fasting: that is continue fast for more than a day without taking any food in between the fasts after sunset, due to the warning against such action as stated in the Sahihayn (bukhar& Muslim). The reason for this disapproval is to prevent weakness, though wisal is one of the peculiarities of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

3- Supplication during the breaking of fast:IbnMajah related from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amribn al-‘Aas that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: “A fasting person, upon breaking his fast, has a supplication that will not be rejected.At-Tirmizhi recorded, with a good chain, that the Prophet said: “Three people will not have their supplications rejected: a fasting person until he breaks his fast, a just ruler, and an oppressed person.”The recommended prayer after fasting is: “Allahummainnilakasumtu, wa ‘alarizqikaaftortu, wa ‘alaykatawakkaltu, wabikaaamantu, zhahabazhamauwabtalatil ‘uruuq, wathabatalajriinshaaAllahuta’aala, yaawasi’alfadliigfirli, Alhamdulillah lazhia’aananifasumtu, warazaqanifa-aftortu.”When ‘Abdullah broke his fast he would say: “O Allah, I ask of You, by Your mercy that encompasses everything, to forgive me.” It is confirmed that the Prophet would say: The thirst has gone, the glands are wet and, Allah willing, the reward is confirmed. In mursal form, it is reported that he would say: “O Allah, for You I have fasted and with Your provisions do I break my fast.”

 

4- Feeding fasting Muslims: Even if it with a date or drinking water, or other things. The best to ensure they are fed to satisfaction. The Prophet said: “He who feeds a fasting Muslim would have the like of his reward, without reducing the reward of the faster at all.”

 

5- Taking the bath of janabah, or menstruation or childbirth before fajr in order that he would be in a state of purity from the start of his day and to be safe from issue of difference of opinion of Abu hurairah who said the fast is not valid, and that water would not reach the inner earlobe etc. in addition, Shafi’i dislikes that a fasting Muslim enters the bathroom without need, so as not to lead to nullification of the fast, such is regarded as luxury which is not in tandem with the wisdom behind fasting.If he does not take the bath at all, the fast is sound but he sins regarding solat.

If a woman becomes clean after menstruation or post birth blood at night, and intent to fast and fasted, or that a man in janabah state fasts without taking the bath, the fast is valid, Allah says: “So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you.” (2:187). Based on the report in the Sahihayn mentioned earlier: The Prophet would wake up in the state of janabah after post sex relation, other than dream, then he would take the bath and fast.”But the report of Bukhari that: “He who wakes up in the state of janabah has no fast.” Is understood to mean the person that perform the act till day breaks.

 

6-  Guarding the tongue and body from all  excessive talks and action which may not be sinful. But regarding forbidden acts such as backbiting, telling lies etc, it is more emphatic to desist from them in Ramadan. The Prophet said: “He who do not leave vain words and action, Allah Has no regard for his abstinence from food and drink.”

 

7- Shunning enjoyment that are though permissible:shunning the permissible lusts or enjoyment, which does not invalidate the fast, including enjoyment of listening, viewing, touching, perceiving like perceiving  smell of basil, touching and looking at it, because of the luxury it involves which does not fit the wisdom of fasting, this is disliked for him like entering the bathroom.

 

8- Being generous to the family and kinsmen: The Prophet was most generous person particularly in Ramadan when Jibreel meets him.

 

9- Being committed to knowledge, quran reading and study, adhkar, salutation on the prophet, etc

 

10- Itikaaf with high devotion to worship in the last ten days.

 

The second sermon

All praises are due to Allah. We praise and thank Him. We seek refuge in Him from the evil of our souls and deeds. I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger. May Allah bless him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

 

Dear faithful, how is the commencement of Ramadan confirmed in Islam?

 

The Arrival of Ramadan

This event is confirmed by sighting the new moon, even if it is seen by only one just person, or by thepassage of thirty days in the immediately preceding month of Sha’ban.

Ibn ‘Umar said: “The people were looking for the new moon and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah

that I had seen it, he fasted and ordered the people to fast.” (Abu Dawud, Al-Hakim, and IbnHibban, who declared it to be sahih.)

 

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet instructed: “Fast after you have seen it [the new crescent] and

end the fast [at the end of the month] when you see it. If it is hidden from you, then wait until the thirty

days of Sha’ban have passed.”(Bukhari and Muslim)

Commenting on these reports, at-Tirmizhi states: “Most knowledgeable people act in accordance withthese reports. They say that it is correct to accept the evidence of one person to determine the beginning ofthe fast. This is the opinion of IbnalMubarak, ash-Shaf’i, and Ahmad. An-Nawawi says that it is the soundestopinion. Conceming the new moon of Shawwal [which signifies the end of the fast], it is confimmed bycompleting thirty days of Ramadan, and most jurists state that the new moon must have been reported byat least two just witnesses. However, Abu Thaur does not distinguish between the new moon of Shawwaland the new moon of Ramadan. In both cases, he accepts the evidence of only one just witness.”

 

Issue of different locations

According to the majority of scholars, it does not matter if the new moon has been sighted in a differentlocation. In other words, after the new moon is seen anywhere in the world, it becomes obligatory for allMuslims to begin fasting, as the Prophet said: “Fast due to its sighting and break the fast due to its sighting.”

This hadith is a general address directed to the whole Muslim world – that is, “if any one of you sees themoon in any place, then that will be a sighting for all of the people.”

According to ‘Ikrimah, al-Qasimibn Muhammad, Salim, Ishaq, the correct opinion among theHanafiyyah, and the chosen opinion among the Shaf’iyyah, every “country” (or territory) is to take into considerationits own sighting and not necessarily to follow the sighting of others. This is based on what Kuraibsaid: “While I was in ash-Sham, the new moon of Ramadan appeared on Thursday night. I retumed toMadinah at the end of the month. There, Ibn ‘Abbas asked me: ‘When did you people see the new moon?’ Isaid: ‘We saw it on Thursday night.’ He said: ‘Did you see it yourself?’ I said: ‘Yes, the people saw it, and theyand Mu’awiyyyah fasted.’ He said: ‘But we saw it on Friday night. We will not stop fasting until we completethirty days or until we see the new moon.’ I said: ‘Isn’t Mu’awiyyah’s sighting and fasting sufficient foryou?’ He said: ‘No . . . This is the order of the Messenger of Allah.’ ” This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, andat-Tirmizhi.

About the hadith, at-Timmizhi says: “It is hassansahihghareeb. Scholars act in accordance with thishadith. Every land has its sighting.”

 

Secondly is the case of affront of Donald Trump to move America’s embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

 

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