RULES OF RAMADAN FASTS

In The Name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful

BEING THE FOURTHKHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF SHA’BAAN 25/SHA’BAAN/1439AH (11/MAY/2018CE)

RULES OF RAMADAN FASTS

Praise be unto Allah who decreed fasting on believers making it guard from sins and fire. Allah says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ (183) ” {البقرة :2\183} , “ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَنْ كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ …” {البقرة :2\285}

O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous (183)…  The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful (184). We praise and thank Him, seek His help and guidance, forgiveness and repentance. We seek refuge in Him from the evil of our souls and deeds. Whoever Allah guides is guided and whoever He misled none will mislead Him. I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger who says: “Whoever fast in Ramadan with faith and sincerity, all his former sins will be forgiven” (Agreed upon). May Allah bless him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

Thereafter,

I admonish you and myself on the fear of Allah, obedience and striving in righteousness … Allah says:

وَلَدَارُ الْآخِرَةِ خَيْرٌ لِلَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ (109) ” {يوسف : 12\109}

{And the home of the Hereafter is best for those who fear Allah; then will you not reason?.} (12:109).

Dear faithful we discussed Preparation for the month of Ramadan, Virtues and Duties in Ramadan. Today we shall be discussing RULES OF RAMADAN FASTS.

Ruling on fasting Ramadan
Categorizing people regarding fasting: Those who should fast and those who could not fast
Fasting is an obligatory duty upon every Muslim who has reach maturity, reasonable, capable and resident.
1 –He who is not permissible to fast: Such is a kaafir, he should not fast, and he is not obliged to pay back the fast if he later accepts Islam and that is not acceptable from him if he ventures to fast.
2 –He who is permissible for to break the fast, and must pay the ransom without paying back the fast: They are those who are unable to fast for a permanent reason, such as the aged one and the sick person, whose sickness has no hope of recovery, they are to feed the poor daily.
3 –He who is not obligatory for him to fast nor feed the poor: The mad person even where he is adult, in same category is the imbecile, who could not distinguish as well the aged that could not discern.
4 –He who have the permissibility to break the fast but obligatory to pay back the fast: The sick person with an emergency illness hoping for recovery and he finds difficulty in the fast, and would pay back after recovery.

5 –The pregnant woman and the breastfeeding mother if they experience difficulty fasting due to the pregnancy or breastfeeding, or they fear for their children, then they could break the fast and pay back when it is safe for them and the fear ceases.

6 –He that is mandatory for to break the fast and must pay back: This for the menstruating woman and the woman in her post birth blood, both will not fast in that state and have to pay back.
7 –For he that is compelled to break the fast in order to save a drowning person or a victim of fire accident, he has to break to save him and pay back.
8 – The traveler has a choice to either fast or break and pay back what he left, regardless of whether the journey is occasional such as the journey of ‘Umrah or continuous such as the taxi drivers. They could break the fast provided they are outside their town.
9 – Those for whom fasting serves for training: This is for the young ones that have not reach puberty, fasting is not mandatory for them, but he is ordered to fast in order get used to it.

Things that break fasting
The fast is not nullified if the fasting person takes in any of the nullifying matters out of forgetfulness, ignorantly or under duress, Allah says: “Our Lord! Condemn us not If we forget or fall Into error. [Al-Baqarah: 286] Allah says: “But there is no blame on you if ye make a mistake therein: (what counts is) the intention of your hearts” (33: 5).

The messenger of Allah said: “The pen has been raised for three: the sleeper until he wakes up, the young one until he attains puberty, and the insane person until he gains consciousness”
If a fasting person forgets to eat or drink, that does not invalidate his fast because he is forgot.
If he rinses his mouth and water enters his throat unintentionally, that does not invalidate his fast, because it was not intentional.
If he had a wet dream in his sleep, his fast would not be invalidated, because he had no choice in the matter.
If he eats, drinks, or have intercourse thinking the sun had set or that the fajr has not come, and the opposite of that appeared, then he have to atone for the day according to majority of scholars, including the four Imams, but Ishaaq, Dawood, Ibn Hazm, ‘Ata’, ‘Urwah, al-Hasan al-Basri and Mujahid said: his fast is valid, and he does not need to atone for any fast. Because Allaah says Allah says: “But there is no blame on you if ye make a mistake therein: (what counts is) the intention of your hearts” (33: 5).

Things that nullify fasting

1- Things that nullify fasting and pay back alone is mandatory: (1) Taking food intentionally (2) To take a drink intentionally (3) vomiting intentionally, but if it came uncontrollably there is no pay back or atonement. (4) Menstruation (5) Post birth blood (6) Masturbation (7) Taking things other than food through the digestive tract. (8) He who intend to break fasting. (9) When one eats or drinks or cohabits thinking the sun is set or that the Fajr has not come, but unfortunately the opposite happened. Two opinions are here:- (a) by majority of scholars that he must pay back. (b) that the fast is alright and never have to pay back. This is the stand of Ibn taymiyah as deduced from the verse:

(وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا أَخْطَأْتُم بِهِ وَلَكِن مَّا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ” [الأحزاب]) “And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. “ (33: 5).

2- Things that nullify fast and necessitate pay back and atonement: (1) Sexual intercourse alone. The atonement is freeing a slave or fasting two months consecutively, or feeding 60 indigents. However, regarding the atonement, two schools of thoughts are prominent: (a) that both the man and woman involved must pay the atonement.  (b) that the woman is exempted regardless of her acceptance to the act.

Pay back of fasting of Ramadan: Two opinions are available here: (1) that the pay back is not mandatory immediately but permissible anytime. (2)that it must be immediate, even before observing any supererogatory fast.

He who dies but missed some days: two opinions as follow: (a) The heir to the deceased cannot fast on his behalf rather they will feed the poor instead. (b) that they can fast it on his behalf.

Calculating in countries with longer days and shorter nights: they can either go in line with the timing of any balanced countries like Makkah or Madinah, or use the timing of the neighbouring country close to them.

Permissible acts while fasting:

1- Immersion in water, either to reduce effect of heat or thirst.

2- Applying the kohl or other eyeliners.

3- Kissing for he who is able to control his urge.

4- Injection

5- Cupping, except where it makes him weak while fasting.

6- Rinsing the mouth and sniffing water into the nose, but perfection is disliked in this matter.

7- It is also permissible to inhale things that cannot be prevented, such as inhaling saliva, phlegm, dusts on roads etc.

8- Inhaling sweet smelling odour as stated by Ibn Taymiyah.

9- It is permissible to eat, drink and have intercourse with one’s wife till fajr period.

10- It is permissible to wake in the morning in a state of post-sex without having taken the bath.

11- It is permissible for the menstruating woman or the woman in post-birth blood when their blood stops in the night to delay the bath till morning but waking in the state of fasting.

The Second sermon

All praises are due to Allah. We praise and thank Him. We seek refuge in Him from the evil of our souls and deeds. I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger. May Allah bless him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

Dear faithful, we would like to inform you that there is a video trending in around today about a man who claim to be Grand Chief Imam of the general Yorba land because he is from Ilorin, an authentic Islamic city. He instigates people to eject the Emir of Ilorin and his family from the city of Ilorin because they are from the Fulani tribe. He also said some other unthinkable things, however we would like to use this medium to educate us all that such act of tribalism is contrary to the Islamic teachings and principles.

Allah says: “O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).” (49: 13).

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