Rulings of Zakaatul—Fitr

In the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

BEING THE FOURTH KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADAN 26/RAMADAN/ 1440AH (31/MAY/2019CE)

THE RULINGS OF ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID

Praise be to God, who says (قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى (14) وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى ) But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.(87:14-15). I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger, who enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

As to what follow,

Dear faithful, I enjoin you and myself to fear Allah, the Almighty both outwardly and inwardly, Allah says:

” يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ (102) ” {آل عمران : 102}

“O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him].” (3: 102)

Dear brothers in faith, as we approach the end of fasting, we have some recommended acts of worship peculiar to this period, among these is the zakatul-fitri which should be performed close to the eidul-fitri. It is suppose to serve as reparation for any shortcoming in one’s fasting and provision for the needy. Today’s sermon is therefore titled: THE RULINGS OF ZAKATUL-FITRI

Zakatul Fitri was legislated in the second year after migration same as fasting. Its obligatoriness have been established in the Sunnah by many hadith, including the hadith Abu Sa’eed Al-khudri, R.A, he said, “We used to give the zakatul fitri when the messenger of Allah was present with us, …” (Muslim). Also was the narration of Ibn Abbass, R.A, thus: “The Prophet of Allah enjoined Zakat al-Fitr …” Abu Dawud and others. The Mufassirun have also interpreted the following statement of Allah to refer to zakatul fitri: (قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى ) But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.(87:14-15). (Ibn Kathir)

The philosophy behind its legislation

Zakatul-fitri was legislated for several reasons which include, completing deficiencies of the fast. The elucidated in the hadith of Ibn Abbas above thus: ““The Prophet of Allah enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. (Abu Dawud and others) It is likened to the sujudu-s-sahw (reparation prostration) which is used to restore or make up for any shortcomings in the fasting. In addition, it is also to enrich the poor and protect them from begging on the day of joy and celebration in the community, as stated in the hadith quoted above thus: “and for the purpose of providing food for the needy”. The act of enrichment of the poor is of the basic necessities guaranteed by the general Islamic law and its philosophy. Furthermore, it guarantees social welfarism in the community, mutual kindness and the concern for others.

The Rule of Zakatul fitri:

Ruling on zakaat al-fitr: zakaat al-fitr is obligatory on every Muslim, whether male or female, young or old, sane or insane base on the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him): “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made giving a saa’ of dates or a saa’ of barley as Zakaat al-Fitr an obligation in Ramadan for all Muslims, slave and free, male and female, young and old.” Agreed upon,

Ibn al-Mundhir said: “All scholars of the knowledge agreed that the Zakatul-Fitr is obligatory.” Ishaaq said: “It is like the consensus of the scholars.” It requires two things for its obligatoriness: - Islam: It is not acceptable from the disbeliever, Allah says: (وما منعهم أن تقبل منهم نفقاتهم إلا أنهم كفروا بالله وبرسوله) “The only reasons why their contributions are not accepted are: that they reject Allah and His Messenger.” (9:54)

– Ability to perform it: Ability to afford it: that one has in his possession, on the day of eid and its night, an extra amount of food above his need, and of his household and every person he is required to spend on and their basic needs including food drink, accommodation and clothing.

The father must pay zakaat al-fitr on behalf of his young child if he (the child) does not have money, but if he has money, then zakaah is due on the money of the minor, and not obligatory from the father’s wealth. The majority of scholars believe that the father must offer it on behalf of those he is required to spend on, such as the wife and parents based on the hadeeth of Ibn Umar: “Offer the zakatul fitri on behalf of those you spend upon.” Narrated by Darulqutni and others, in its chain is irsal, but the correct view of hadith scholars is that it is mawquf. The truth is that zakatul fitri is obligatory on the wife herself because Allaah says: (ولا تزر وازرة وزر أخرى) “No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another.” (6:164). Likewise are the parents. The most correct of the sayings of the scholars is that debt does not prevent from the obligation of zakaat al-fitr.

Time of obligation to offer the zakatul fitri

Zakatul fitri becomes due for payment by the sunset of the night of eid, thus whoever is mandatory on him should pay it but if not included, then it is not obligatory. If someone dies just before sunset it is not obligatory on him, but if it is after sunset, then it becomes obligatory on him to pay the zakatul fitri. In the same vein, it is not obligatory on he who becomes a Muslim after sunset, or one whose wife delivers a baby after, though it is desirable to perform it, but where the baby was given birth to before sunset then it is obligatory to pay it on him.

As for the time, the best is to pay it in the morning before the eid prayer based on the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) – as is found in sahih al-Bukhaari – “During the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we used to offer a Saa’ from the wheat …” And as narrated by Ibn Umar (May Allaah be pleased with them both) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded zakaat al-fitr to be performed before the people went out to pray.” This is because it is meant to enrich the poor on this day away from begging, so that they may share in the joy and pleasure with the well to do ones. It is permissible to offer them a day or two before the day of Eid, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari that Ibn Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them) used to give them – the charity of breaking the fast- to those who would collect them, and he would offer them a day or two before the eid. It is not right to delay it till after eid prayer without an excuse, and if he does that, then it would not be accepted, based on the statement of the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is the acceptable charity, and whoever  pays it after the prayer, it is an ordinary charity” Narrated by Abu Dawad and others. But if the delay is due to an excuse, such as if the Eid meets him in a place where there is no money on him to pay with, or could not find who to pay to, or that the news of the Eid comes so suddenly that it could not be offered before the eid prayer or that he depend on a person to offer it on his behalf and the person forgot to do it, then for him in these situations it could be paid even after eid prayer because he is excused.

The type of foodstuffs and quantity to be offered

The zakatul fitri should be offered from the staple food in the land owing to the hadith of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him): “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made giving a saa’ of dates or a saa’ of barley as Zakaat al-Fitr an obligation in Ramadan for all Muslims, slave and free, male and female, young and old.” Agreed upon. The Barley was thenone of their staple foods as elucidated by Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) he said: ““During the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we used to offer a Saa’ on the day of eidul fitri, from the food, and our food were barley, raisins, aqit (dried youghurt) and dates.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari. And the amount that is to be offered from any of these items or other food, is estimated at two kilos and forty grams.

Some scholars have authorized the payment of the value of these items, which is the view of the Hanafis, Sufyaan al-Thawri, Umar bin Abdul-Aziz and al-Hasan al-Basri. (See Mabsuut, 3/107, Mughniy, 653, Majmoo’ 6/138) and the issue is expansive according to the need of the poor. It is permissible to pay zakaat al-fitr to the poor and the needy without extending it to the others among the eight zakat recipients, and this is the view of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him), it is not permissible to give it to a person who one is responsible to be spend on, in the same vein it is not permissible to give it to Ahl dhimmah (non-believers living under the Islamic rule). It is permissible to pay zakaat al-fitr to one poor person or several poor people, and the most preferred is to give it to the poor relatives who the giver is not responsible to cater for them.

Permissibility of offering the monetary value

Al-Bukhaari narrated in his Saheeh that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to women on the day of Eidul-Fitr: “Give charity, even if it is from your ornaments” Al-Bukhaari said: “He did not differentiate the obligatory charity from others.” Ibn Hajar said in al-Fath: “Contrary to the practice of Al-bukhari in his disagreement with the Hanafis is his agreement with them on the issue of payment of zakatul fitri in monetary value, and in the permissibility of payment of zakat in material format, al-bukhari also had a chapter titled- The Chapter of Al-‘Ard (meaning every material other than money

The large number of scholars that support this view of payment in value: He actually errs and falls into error whoever thinks that it is only Abu Haneefah that permits use of monetary value in zakatul fitri, but the truth is the contrary. This is a list of jurists who accepts payment in value as enumerated by Sheikh Habib bin Taher: Among the Companions: (may Allah be pleased with them) Umar bin Khattab, his son Abdullah bn Umar, Abdullah bn Mas’ud, Abdullah bn ‘Abbas, and Mu’aadh bn Jabal. Abu Ishaq al-Subai’ee from the middle class of the Taabi’een, he said: I met them (meaning the Companions) and they gave dirham in the payment of the charity of Ramadaan in the value of the food. (Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: 3/174, Umdatul Qaari: 9/8).

From the angle of the maqasidul shariah (objectives of the sharia): The zakat al-fitr was legislated on the intent stated in the sound hadeeth, which is to purify the fasting person from the falsehood and vain talks, and to feed the poor and the needy. And in that weak hadith- most likely: “Enrich them from the humiliation of begging on this day.” The goal is to make the needy experience the joy of eid like the well to do, and the poor person of today needs to buy new clothes for his children, and eid gifts, and nothing is relevant in this regard today except money. We have seen dozens of times where the poor sells the grains to the same trader from whom the rich people bought those foodstuffs from at a lower price. Was Zakat al-Fitr legislated to enrich the traders at the expense of the poor?

SECOND SERMON

Praise be to Allah Alone. We praise and thank Him. May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon Muhammad, his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

Having said that,

Etiquettes of Eid.

Eid is the day of gathering of people as a common practice. It is also named ‘Eid’ because it is an annual event.

Eid Prayer: It is commanded by the Prophet – pbuh- on every member of the Muslim community; males and females. Ibn Taimiyah categorized it as obligatory on every Muslim. This is the view of the Hanafi school, a section of the hanbalis and that of Ibn Qayyim.

Umm ‘Atiyya reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded us to bring out on’Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha young women, menstruating women and purdah-observing ladies, menstruating women kept back from prayer, but participated in goodness and supplication of the Muslims. I said: Messenger of Allah, one of us does not have an outer garment (to cover her face and body). He said: Let her sister cover her with her outer garment. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Etiquettes of ‘Eid:

1- To eat before going to ‘eid using dates in odd numbers.

2- To wear the best of clothes: Umar bought a silk cloak from the market, took it to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Take it and adorn yourself with it during the ‘Id and when the delegations visit you.” Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) replied, “This dress is for those who have no share (in the Hereafter).” (bukhari)

3- The woman should attend the ‘eid without applying perfume or being exposed “… and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance.” The Prophet said: “Any woman who apply the perfume and passes by a group of people that they may perceive her scent, is a fornicator.” (Ahmad)

4- It recommended to go to ‘eid taking a walk not by by riding except for those with inability or due to farness of the journey.

5- It recommended as well to alternate the route to and from the ‘eid venue. Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) on the day of ‘Eid used to alternate or change the route.” (bukhari).

6- It is permissible to share pleasantry and greeting and prayers on the day of ‘eid.

Some important notes on issues regarding ‘eid.

1- Caution must be made regarding free mixing between males and females.

2- It is forbidden to have handshake with the opposite sex.

3- Joining family ties is obligatory to the extent that breaking it is regarded as a grievous sin.

4- Eid is a pleasurable occasion which binds the minds and removes hatred and discords etc.

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.

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