SOCIAL SOLIDARITY; A LESSON FROM THE HIJRAH::: KHUTBAH 23RD MUHARRAM/14397AH (13/OCT/2017CE)

In the Name Of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

BEING THE FOURTH SERMON FOR THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM 23/MUHARRAM/14397AH (13/OCT/2017CE)
SOCIAL SOLIDARITY; A LESSON FROM THE HIJRAH

All praises are due to Allah Who says:﴿ وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ﴾  [المائدة:5\2]

 “And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression.”(5: 2). I testify there is no god but Allah alone, He has no associate, and I testify that Muhammad (pbuh) is the servant of Allah and His messenger. May Allah bestow peace and blessings on him (pbuh), his families, pious companions and all those who follow his guidance till the day of recompense.

As to what follow,
O people, I enjoin you and myself to fear Allah in the secret and the open in accordance with the words of Allah thus:
(يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا (70) يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا﴾ {الأحزاب:33\70-71}. ) “O you who have believed, fear Allah and speak words of appropriate justice. ( 71 )   He will [then] amend for you your deeds and forgive you your sins. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly attained a great attainment.” (33: 70- 71)
 
Dear faithful, this being the fourth Khutbah in the month, today’s sermon is titled “SOCIAL SOLIDARITY: A LESSON FROM THE HIJRAH” in continuation of the series of lecture focusing on the derivable lessons from the Hijrah.
Dear Muslims, Islam has been interested in building an integrated society to be a powerful society capable of facing all challenges,while mobilizing for this purpose, a set of texts and legal provisions to evolve the society as a well cemented structure, capable of standing against all kinds of conspiracies. The social solidarity in Islam is not limited to material benefit, it transcends to all the societal needs, as individuals and groups, material, moral or intellectual- in the broadest concepts,thus it includes all basic rights of individuals and groups within the Nation.

The interdependence or solidarity referred to in its spiritual dimension is greater than just cooperation, support or assistance from which one may expect the other person to stand by one in return. It is a form of help that proceeds from a spiritual dimension that seeks only divine mercy, it emanates from the purity of the soul which produces no other than closeness to Allah.

What is meant by social solidarity (at-takaaful)?
Definition of Social Solidarity:
Social solidarity means that members of society are involved in the preservation of public and private interests and warding off of evil, both material and moral, so that each individual feels that besides his rights he has duties to others, especially those who cannot fulfill their own needs by providing them with benefits and protect them from dangers. This is the image of the Islamic community built by the Messenger of Allah – peace be upon him – in Madinah.
Aspects of Social Solidarity:
The concept of social solidarity in Islam is not related to the human aspect that moves through human dignity, it is limited to Muslims belonging to the Muslim Ummah alone, but includes all human beings regardless of their religion and beliefs within that society as Allah says:

(﴿لَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ﴾) “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.” This is because the basis of interdependence is dignity of the human being, as the Almighty Allah says: (﴿وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلاً﴾)And We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference. All of humanity falls under the banner of this understanding, where the Muslim man starts with his own circle, then his family circle, then his social environment, and then the interdependence of different societies.

Encouraging social solidarity:
There is no doubt that the society is an entity that its confederating parts interact with one another. The society, which is governed by solidarity and cooperation, provides its members with help and assistance for those who need it will be filled with love, harmony, and its bonds of Islamic brotherhood become strengthened, while the society that fails to live with these excellent Islamic values will produce incapacitated individuals clothed in poverty, ignorance and disease, which opens wide the doors of corruption and vices, and this will be reflected in the whole society causing harm to everyone.

Social solidarity from the verses of the glorious Qur’an:
Allah says: (﴿يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ﴾ [البقرة:2\215].)They ask you, [O Muhammad], what they should spend. Say, “Whatever you spend of good is [to be] for parents and relatives and orphans and the needy and the traveler. And whatever you do of good – indeed, Allah is Knowing of it.” (2: 215)

 

Allah says: (﴿لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَالْمَلآئِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّآئِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُواْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاء والضَّرَّاء وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ﴾ [البقرة:2\ 177].)Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakah; [those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous.” (2: 177)

Allah says: (﴿وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ﴾ [المائدة:5\ 2].)And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” (5: 2)

Allah says: (﴿وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُوْلَئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللّهُ إِنَّ اللّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ ﴾ [التوبة:9\ 71])The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and establish prayer and give zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. Those – Allah will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.” (9: 71)

Allah also says: (﴿وَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَلاَ تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا﴾ [الاسراء:17\ 26]) And give the relative his right, and [also] the poor and the traveler, and do not spend wastefully.” (17: 26)

Allah says: (﴿إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ﴾ [الحجرات 10].)The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy” (49: 10)

 

Social solidarity from the hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him):

 

Nu’manbn Bashir reported Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as saying: The similitude of believers in regard to mutual love, affection, fellow-feeling is that of one body; when any limb of it aches, the whole body aches, because of sleeplessness and fever.

 

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs; whoever brought his (Muslim) brother out of a discomfort, Allah will bring him out of the discomforts of the Day of Resurrection, and whoever screened a Muslim, Allah will screen him on the Day of Resurrection . “

 

He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also said: “Whosoever relieves from a believer some grief pertaining to this world, Allah will relieve from him some grief pertaining to the Hereafter. Whosoever alleviates the difficulties of a needy person who cannot pay his debt, Allah will alleviate his difficulties in both this world and the Hereafter. Whosoever conceals the faults of a Muslim, Allah will conceal his faults in this world and the Hereafter. Allah will aid a servant (of His) so long as the servant aids his brother. 

 

The scope of social solidarity:

Social solidarity expands to encompass all humanity where the Muslim man starts with his own space as an individual, then his family circle, then his social environment, and then the interdependence of different societies.

 

Social solidarity between a man and himself:

At first, a person is responsible for his soul, he is responsible for its purification, correction, reformation and directing it to goodness and protecting it away from evil. Allah the exalted said: (﴿وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا * فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا * قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا * وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا﴾)And [by] the soul and He who proportioned it ( 8 )   And inspired it [with discernment of] its wickedness and its righteousness,( 9 )   He has succeeded who purifies it, ( 10 )   And he has failed who instills it [with corruption].” (91: 7-10)likewise, he is responsible for keeping and caring for its health and enjoyment within the limits of the permissible. Allah says: (وَابْتَغِ فِيمَا آتَاكَ اللَّهُ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ وَلَا تَنسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَأَحْسِن كَمَا أَحْسَنَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ وَلَا تَبْغِ الْفَسَادَ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِينَ) But seek, through that which Allah has given you, the home of the Hereafter; and [yet], do not forget your share of the world. And do good as Allah has done good to you. And desire not corruption in the land. Indeed, Allah does not like corrupters.” (28: 77).

Then he is prohibited from destroying, weakening or torturing himself. Allah, the exalted has forbidcommitting suicide by saying: (وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيماً)And do not kill yourselves [or one another]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful..” [4: 29].

 

Social solidarity within the family:
Islam has affirmed the solidarity among the family members, and it made it a tight bond that preserves the family from disintegration and collapse. The interdependence in the family environment begins with the spouses taking on the joint responsibility of carrying out the family duties and requirements, each party according to its innate function as fashioned by Allah. Each one of you is a shepherd. And each of you will be asked about your flock. A ruler also is a shepherd and he will be asked about his flock. And every man is a shepherd to his family. And every woman is the custodian of her husband’s house and his children. Thus each one of you is a shepherd and each one will be asked about his flock.” [SahihBukhari and Muslim] ” .

Then is the division and distribution of responsibilities within the home between the husband and the wife in a manner to ensure both the physical and moral foundations of the family structure. Allah says addressing the family heads and managers- men and women: O you who have believed, protect yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones, over which are [appointed] angels, harsh and severe; they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them but do what they are commanded. (66: 6).

Social solidarity within the society:
Islam has established a symbiotic interdependence between the individual and the community. It enjoins on each of them some obligations towards the other, and combines between the individual and public interest, whereby the realization of the private interest is complementary to that of the public while the public interestcontains and guarantees the individual interest. The individual in the Muslim community is responsible for the maintenance of public order, and all attitudes that could endanger the society, or disrupt some of his interests, Allah says: (﴿وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُوْلَئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللّهُ إِنَّ اللّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ ﴾ [التوبة:9\ 71])The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and establish prayer and give zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. Those – Allah will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.” (9: 71)

Also the individual is commanded to be efficient in his social performances and engagements whereby his existence will be effective and influential in the society in which he lives. Allah says: (﴿وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ﴾ [المائدة:5\ 2].)And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” (5: 2)

The manifestations of social solidarity in Islam:
The outlines of this interdependence can be seen from the previous presentation. If we want to examine some of the detailed manifestations of this interdependence, we find the concern of Islam for those social groups that are most endangered, which unfortunately are often focused in the discourse on social solidarity in its narrow concept:

  1. Catering for the elderly
  2. Ensuring care for children and orphans
  3. Caring for the poor and the indigents
  4. Care for the neighbour’s rights
  5. Safeguarding rights of Guest and stranger.

The means of achieving social solidarity in Islam:
Islam has established the means and systems to achieve social solidarity, some of these are entrusted to individuals, others are assigned to the state.

Means assigned to individual members of the society:
Islam gave a number of these means to individuals, it made some mandatory, and left others to be voluntary, and some of these mandatory individual means legislated by Islam to achieve thisinterdependence include:

1 – Zakat 2 –Kafaaraat- expiation 3 –zakatulfitri 4 –relief for the needy
Voluntary individual means:
If Islam has established mandatory means of takaful (solidarity), it also opens the door to volunteering, through its legislation of voluntary means of solidarity, which includes:
1 –Al-Waqf(Endowment)          2 –Al-Wasiyyah (bequeath)  3–Loan  4 – Gift

State responsibility:
If Islam has given great attention to the individual means of solidarity, it is not limited to that, but established by it the public means of solidarity which is the responsibility of the State, the most important among them are:
1 – Securing the public fund resources
2 – Creating jobs for those who are able
3 – Organizing the individual means of solidarity

Conclusion :
Dear Muslims, presented here is the image of Islamic social solidarity (takaful), which is one of the derivable lessons from the Prophet’s migration. Every member of the community must pick his lessons and apply them in his personal and social life. It is incumbent on the society and the state as well.

The Second Sermon
All praises are due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. May His peace and blessings be upon Muhammad, his household, companions and all those who follow his footsteps till the day of judgement.

As to what follows,
Dear worshipers of Allah, whoever listens and monitors the news on both the prints and electronic media would know of a new disease spreading rapidly called the Monkey Pox. This is no more than consequence of man’s iniquities.

Allah warns His servants when they are afflicted with calamities to draw their attention to Him, and repent from their sins, Allah says: (وَمَا أَصَابَكُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ)And whatever strikes you of disaster – it is for what your hands have earned; but He pardons much.” (42: 30)

The actions of man including corruption have not seized to cause them pain, sickness, plagues, drought, loss of agricultural blessings, … Allah says: (ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ)

Corruption has appeared throughout the land and sea by [reason of] what the hands of people have earned so He may let them taste part of [the consequence of] what they have done that perhaps they will return [to righteousness].” (30: 41)

May Allah save us from the evil of our actions.
Oh Allah accept our fast, prayers, bowing and prostration. O Allah ease for us Your remembrance, gratitude to You and sound worship. O Allah make the Qur’an the succor to our hearts, light to our faces, remover of our grief and sorrow. O Allah show us the truth and grant us the wherewithal to follow it, show us falsehood and grant us the wherewithal to desist. O Allah forgive the believers; men and women, and the Muslim men and women, both the living and the deceased, You are All- hearing, most near, answerer of prayers. O Allah make this nation- Nigeria peaceful, safe, generous, with abundant welfare, and all other Muslim nations.

 

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