THE LANDMARKS OF THE STATE IN ISLAM

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In The Name Of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful

BEING THE THIRD KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF SOFAR, 17/SOFAR/1440AH (26 /OCT/2018CE)

THE LANDMARKS OF THE STATE IN ISLAM

Praise be to Allah, the lord of the worlds, the Creator of heavens and earth Who made Islam contain all affairs. Allah says: (﴿مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ﴾ {الأنْعام:6\38}) “We have not neglected in the Register a thing. We praise and thank Him for His grace and honour and seek help from Him … I testify there is no god but Allah alone, the Sovereign, the all-knowing. I testify that Muhammad (pbuh) is his servant and messenger. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his household, companions and whoever follows them till the day of recompense.

Having said that,

Dear Muslims, I enjoin you all and myself to revere Allah in the open and in the secret. Allah says:

﴿ يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ تَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ فُرْقَانًا وَيُكَفِّرْ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ﴾ {الأنفال:8\29}

“O you who have believed, if you fear Allah, He will grant you a criterion and will remove from you your misdeeds and forgive you. And Allah is the possessor of great bounty.” (8: 29) .

Dear believers, today’s sermon is the third khutbah in Sofar. The last four have been dedicated to the elucidation on political matters being the issue of the moment in Nigeria as we prepare for the general elections in 2019. We discussed The Modern Electoral Process: Evolution and Rulings, The Islamic understanding of politics and The differences between Shariah based Politics and the manmade system of politics and The Position of The State In Islam. Today we shall discuss THE LANDMARKS OF THE STATE IN ISLAM.

Honored Muslims, there is no doubt that Islam builds righteous individual, righteous family, righteous society, … in the same way it strives to build a righteous State. The State in Islam is not an image of any of the states known in the world before or after the advent of Islam, rather it is a unique state with its goals, methods, components, and peculiarities.

A civilized state with Islam being its reference

O believing brothers, truly, it is a civilized state that rules by Islam, it is firmly established on allegiance and (Shura) Consultation, selecting its personnel from the competent, trustworthy, prudent and knowledgeable persons. Whoever lacks competence and knowledge, or trustworthiness and prudency is not worthy of the office, except in conditions of compelling necessities.

In its most pristine concept and correct application, Islam does not recognize such designation as “men of the religion” which is known in other societies. Expectedly every Muslim is a personality of the religion, however there could be scholars with specialization in the sciences of Islam, such could be likened to scholars of ethics, philosophy and law in other societies.

The State And The Scholars

It is expected of the scholars to uphold for the state the duty of recommendation which is made an obligation for the leaders and the Muslim populace. This is a responsibility that rest upon the people of knowledge, in order that the state may remain upon the right path of Islam. It also affirms the truth and discard falsehood, it legalizes the legitimate and forbids the forbidden. They should also enjoin good and forbid evil with wisdom and beautiful admonition without fear of the blame of anyone. Furthermore, the state is under obligation to create an enabling environment to facilitate the role of recommendation, dawah, and enjoinment of good and forbiddance of evil. It is expected of it to constitute a council or supreme constitutional council that would provide the constitutional legality and codes, in order to avoid the display of contradictions with Islam, which could lead to creating division between the Qur’an and the government, which has been warned against in the hadith of the Prophet. In this regard, knowledge and governance exists side by side. There would not be the kind of separation that existed between both in the better part of history, where the scholars existed in a separate entity and the government in another. They (government) would not allow nearness except with poets, praise singers and people like that. However, fundamentally, the Muslim leader is expected to be knowledgeable about the Islamic laws to the level of making Ijtihad (independent judicial deductions) like the rightly guided caliphs and those who follow them. Base on this reason, the jurists were unanimous in agreement that ijtihad (ability of independent legal deductions) is a prerequisite for being a leader and a judge. They have not accepted the absence of this requirement except in a situation of moving from the ideal to the reality out of necessity. It is thus a city state which establishes the divine rules while ensuring the commandments of Allah among the people. In this regard, it would deservedly gain Allah’s support and authority. Without this, it loses every legitimacy of existence and perpetuity.

“(And they are) those who, if we give them authority in the land, establish prayer and give zakah and enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong. And to Allah belongs the outcome of (all) matters.” (22:41)

A Universal State
O worshipers of Allah, the state of Islam is neither ethnic nor regional. It stands on the foundation of the extent of the boundary of the globe and the geographical boundaries. Foundationally, it is an open state for every person who believes in its fundamental principles, based on free choice, devoid of pressure or compulsion. A universal state because it has a universal message. It is a state of ideology and creed, wherein gender and national boundaries melt, including language and colour. Faith in One God binds its people together, one messenger, one scripture, one qiblah, one form of rites, one law, one ethics. By these indices One Nation emerges which stands on unity of statement emanating from the statement of Unity (kalimatu tawheed).

A legitimate and constitutional state
O brothers in faith, the state of Islam is a constitutional or legitimate state with constitutions and laws that guide it. Its laws are revealed in those principles and shariah laws in the Qur’an, explained in the Sunnah, consisting of matters of ideologies, worships, morals, interpersonal relationship, personal and public, criminal punishment, administration, constitution, and international relations. It is not informed as a compliance with this constitution or law, rather it is a function of its Islam and a sign of its faith.

(وَأَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنُوكَ عَنْ بَعْضِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُصِيبَهُمْ بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ (49) أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حُكْمًا لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ)

“And judge, (O Muhammad) between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations and beware of them, lest they tempt you away from some of what Allah has revealed to you. And if they turn away- then know that Allah only intends to afflict them with some of their (own) sins. And indeed, many among the people are defiantly disobedient. (50) Then is it the judgement of (the time of) ignorance they desire? But who is better than Allah in judgement for a people who are certain (in faith).” (5: 49-50)

(َمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ …وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ) “And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it those who are the disbelievers, … And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it those who are the wrongdoers, … And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it those who are the defiantly disobedient.” (5: 44, 45, 47)

Though these verses were revealed to address the people of the Book, but it is general in it presentation to cover disbelievers and Muslims. Derivable lesson is in the general tone of the statement and not about the specific reason.

A state of consultation and not that of Khosrau
A state of Islam is neither of Khosrau (Persian emperor) nor Ceasar  (Roman emperor). It is not established on monarchical structure of a one family, or a branch of a family, children inherit the throne from their fathers, grand children from their grand fathers, in the way estates and finances are being inherited, even where such inheritors are the most bereaved intellectually and morally bankrupt. Indeed knowledge and wisdom and honour are not inherited automatically by default, how many times have we seen righteous fathers and corrupt children. Allah relates about Ibrahim and Ishaaq thus: (وَبَارَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى إِسْحَاقَ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا مُحْسِنٌ وَظَالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ مُبِين) “And We blessed him and Ishaaq. But among their descendants is the doer of good and the clearly unjust to himself.” (37:133)

Also: (إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا قَال:َ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي ؟ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ) “(Allah) said, “Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people. “(Abraham) said, “And of my descendants?” (Allah) said, “My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.” (2:124)

Indeed the state of Islam stands on a better principles than what is found in democratic system and it is not a copy of the western democratic state.

SECOND KHUTBAH
All praises are due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, Who made Islam a religion that protects human lives, forbidding deliberate taking of lives, an action regarded as one of the major sins. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon the prophet, his household, companions and whoever follows them till the day of recompense.

As to what follows,

Dear worshippers of Allah, at this point in time we would direct our attention to the alarming level of crisis and terror and cannibalism which happened in Kaduna State of Nigeria where many lives were lost. Indeed, this incident is condemnable and forbidden by Islam, the religion of peace. Allah says: (مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فِي الْأَرْضِ لَمُسْرِفُونَ (32) إِنَّمَا جَزَاءُ الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَنْ يُقَتَّلُوا أَوْ يُصَلَّبُوا أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ مِنْ خِلَافٍ أَوْ يُنْفَوْا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ) “Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption (done) in the land- it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And Our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them, (even) after that, throughout the land, were transgressors. (33) Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His messenger and strive upon earth (to cause) corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment.” (5:32-33)

Allah also says: (وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَنْ يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً وَمَنْ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ يَصَّدَّقُوا فَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا (92) وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا) “And never is it for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake- then the freeing of a believing slave and a compensation payment presented to the deceased’s family (is required) unless they give (up their rights as) charity. But if the deceased was from a people at war with you and he was a believer- then (only) the freeing of a believing slave; and if he was from a people with whom you have a treaty – then a compensation payment presented to his family and the freeing of a believing slave. And whoever does not find (one or cannot afford to buy one)- then (instead) a fast for two months consecutively, (seeking) acceptance of repentance from Allah. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise. (93) But whoever kills a believer intentionally- his recompense is Hell, wherein he will abide eternally, and Allah has become angry with him and has cursed him and has prepared for him a great punishment.” (4: 92- 93).

We therefore call on the Federal Government and the Kaduna State Government to stand up to the obligation of protection of lives and properties such that the incident would not happen again. May Allah forgive the Muslims among the dead and admit them into the Paradise.

Oh Allah descend peace; flowing with continuous tranquility and security upon Nigeria and all other Muslim nations. O Allah accept the worship of the pilgrims of hajj and Umrah, and grant us all Your pleasure, And the last of our call will be, “Praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds!”

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