25th Ramadan 1442.A.H
(7th May,2021.C.E)

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL BEING THE FOURTH KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADAN 25/RAMADAN/ 1442AH (7/MAY/2021CE)

THE RULINGS OF ZAKATUL-FITRI AND THE ‘EID
Praise be to Allah, who says (قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى (14) وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى ) But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.(87:14-15). I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger, who enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

As to what follows,
Dear servants of Allah I hereby advise you all and myself to fear Allah, the Exalted, fear Him, in yourselves and in all your responsibilities. Surely the fear of Allah, is the prestige without any ranking, or lineage, and its the honor without position, or fame, it’s the richness without money, and by it is the success of the present and the hereafter. Allah says: (﴿وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مَخْرَجًا (2) وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَحْتَسِبُ ﴾{الطَّلاق 2-3}) “And whoever fears Allah – He will make for him a way out (3) And will provide for him from where he does not expect.” (65: 2-3)
Dear Muslims, here is the last moment and the last Friday in our blessed month, for that reason, our discussion today shall focus on the RULINGS ON ZAKAT AL-FITR AND THE EID.
Honorable servants of Allah, be aware that zakat al-Fitr was prescribed in the second year of the Hijra, which is the same year in which Allah made fasting of Ramadan mandatory, and the evidence for its legitimacy has been proven in the Sunnah in several hadiths, including what Abu Saeed al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated: “When the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) lived among us, we use to bring forth zakat, on closing the fast of Ramadan one sa’ of grain or of cheese, or of barley, or of dried dates, or of raisens, payable by every young and old freeman and slave. (Narrated by Abu Dawud and others). Including the report of Ibn Umar, Ibn ’Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) enjoined the payment of one sa” of dates or one sa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-fitr on every Muslim, slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Id prayer.”(Agreed upon). Other reports were reported which all indicate the obligatoriness of zakatul-Fitr for every Muslim. The Mufassirun have also interpreted the following statement of Allah to refer to zakatul fitri: (قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى ) But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.(87:14-15). (Ibn Kathir)

The philosophy behind its legislation
Zakatul-fitri was legislated for several reasons which include, completing, covering up deficiencies of the fast. This is elucidated in the hadith of Ibn Abbas thus: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) prescribed the sadaqah (alms) relating to the breaking of the fast as a purification of the fasting from empty and obscene talk and as food for the poor. If anyone pays it before the prayer (of ‘Id), it will be accepted as zakat. If anyone pays it after the prayer, that will be a sadaqah like other sadaqahs (alms).” (Abu Dawud and others). Some of the scholars likened it to the sujudu-s-sahw (reparation prostration) which is used to restore or make up for any shortcomings in the fasting. In addition, it is also to enrich the poor and protect them from begging on the day of joy and celebration in the community, as stated in the hadith quoted above thus: “and as food for the poor.”. The act of enrichment of the poor is of the basic necessities guaranteed by the general Islamic law and its philosophy. Furthermore, it guarantees social welfarism in the community, mutual kindness and the concern for others.

The Rulings of Zakatul fitri:
Zakaat al-fitr is obligatory on every Muslim, whether male or female, young or old, sane or insane based on the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) enjoined the payment of one sa” of dates or one sa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-fitr in Ramadan on every Muslim, slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Id prayer.”(Agreed upon).

Ibn al-Mundhir said: "All scholars of the knowledge agreed that the Zakatul-Fitr is obligatory." Ishaaq said: "It is like the consensus of the scholars." It requires two conditions for its obligatoriness:

1- Islam: It is not acceptable from the disbeliever, Allah says: (وما منعهم أن تقبل منهم نفقاتهم إلا أنهم كفروا بالله وبرسوله) “The only reasons why their contributions are not accepted are: that they reject Allah and His Messenger.” (9:54)

2- Ability to perform it: Ability to afford it, and that is one has in his possession, on the day of eid and its night, an extra amount of food above his need, his household and every person he is required to spend for their basic needs including food drink, accommodation and clothing.

The father must pay zakaat al-fitr on behalf of his young child if he (the child) does not have money, but if he has money, then zakaah is due on the money of the minor, and not obligatory from the father’s wealth. The majority of scholars believe that the father must offer it on behalf of those he is required to spend on, such as the wife and parents based on the hadeeth of Ibn Umar: "Offer the zakatul fitri on behalf of those you spend upon." Narrated by Darulqutni and others, in its chain is irsal, but the correct view of scholars of hadith is that it is mawquf. The truth is that zakatul fitri is obligatory on the wife herself because Allaah says: (ولا تزر وازرة وزر أخرى) “No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another.” (6:164). Likewise are the parents. The most correct of the sayings of the scholars is that debt does not prevent from the obligation paying of zakaat al-fitr.

Time of obligation to offer the zakatul fitri
Zakatul fitri becomes due for payment by the sunset of the night of eid, thus whoever is mandatory on him should pay it but if not included, then it is not obligatory. If someone dies just before sunset it is not obligatory on him, but if it is after sunset, then it becomes obligatory on him to pay the zakatul fitri. In the same vein, it is not obligatory on he who becomes a Muslim after sunset, or one whose wife delivers a baby after, though it is desirable to perform it, but where the baby was given birth to before sunset then it is obligatory to pay it on him.
As for the time, the best is to pay it in the morning before the eid prayer based on the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) – as is found in sahih al-Bukhaari – “During the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we used to offer a Saa’ from the wheat …” And as narrated by Ibn Umar (May Allaah be pleased with them both) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded zakaat al-fitr to be performed before the people went out to pray.” This is because it is meant to enrich the poor on this day away from begging, so that they may share in the joy and pleasure with the well to do ones.
It is permissible to offer them a day or two before the day of Eid, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari that Ibn Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them) used to give them – the charity of breaking the fast- to those who would collect them, and he would offer them a day or two before the eid.
It is not right to delay it till after eid prayer without an excuse, and if he does that, then it would not be accepted, based on the statement of the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is the acceptable charity, and whoever pays it after the prayer, it is an ordinary charity” Narrated by Abu Dawad and others.
But if the delay is due to an excuse, such as if the Eid meets him in a place where there is no money on him to pay with, or could not find who to pay to, or that the news of the Eid comes so suddenly that it could not be offered before the eid prayer or that he depend on a person to offer it on his behalf and the person forgot to do it, then for him in these situations it could be paid even after eid prayer because he is excused.

The types of foodstuffs and quantity to be offered
The zakatul fitri should be offered from the staple food in the land owing to the hadith of Ibn ‘Umar. Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) enjoined the payment of one sa” of dates or one sa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-fitr in Ramadan on every Muslim, slave or free, male or female, young or old.” Agreed upon.
The Barley was then one of their staple foods as elucidated by Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) he said: “When the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) lived among us, we use to bring forth zakat, on closing the fast of Ramadan one sa’ of grain or of cheese, or of barley, or of dried dates, or of raisens, payable by every young and old freeman and slave. (Narrated by Abu Dawud)

The amount to be offered from any of these items or other foods, is estimated at two kilos and forty grams.

Some scholars have authorized the payment of the value of these items, which is the view of the Hanafis, Sufyaan al-Thawri, Umar bin Abdul-Aziz and al-Hasan al-Basri. (See Mabsuut, 3/107, Mughniy, 653, Majmoo’ 6/138) and the issue is expansive according to the need of the poor.
It is permissible to pay zakaat al-fitr to the poor and the needy without extending it to the others among the eight zakat recipients, and this is the view of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him), it is not permissible to give it to a person who one is responsible to be spend on, in the same vein it is not permissible to give it to Ahl dhimmah (non-believers living under the Islamic rule).
It is permissible to pay zakaat al-fitr to one poor person or several poor people, and the most preferred is to give it to the poor relatives who the giver is not responsible to cater for them.

Permissibility of offering the monetary value
Al-Bukhaari narrated in his Saheeh that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to women on the day of Eidul-Fitr: "Give charity, even if it is from your ornaments" Al-Bukhaari said: “He did not differentiate the obligatory charity from others.” Ibn Hajar said in al-Fath: “Contrary to the practice of Al-bukhari in his disagreement with the Hanafis is his agreement with them on the issue of payment of zakatul fitri in monetary value, and in the permissibility of payment of zakat in material format, al-bukhari also had a chapter titled- The Chapter of Al-‘Ard (meaning every material other than money
The large number of scholars that support this view of payment in value: He actually errs and falls into error whoever thinks that it is only Abu Haneefah that permits use of monetary value in zakatul fitri, but the truth is the contrary. This is a list of jurists who accepts payment in value as enumerated by Sheikh Habib bin Taher: Among the Companions: (may Allah be pleased with them) Umar bin Khattab, his son Abdullah bn Umar, Abdullah bn Mas’ud, Abdullah bn ‘Abbas, and Mu’aadh bn Jabal. Abu Ishaq al-Subai’ee from the middle class of the Taabi’een, he said: I met them (meaning the Companions) and they gave dirham in the payment of the charity of Ramadaan in the value of the food. (Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: 3/174, Umdatul Qaari: 9/8).

From the angle of the maqasidul shariah (objectives of the sharia): The zakat al-fitr was legislated on the intent stated in the sound hadeeth, which is to purify the fasting person from the falsehood and vain talks, and to feed the poor and the needy. And in that weak hadith- most likely: “Enrich them from the humiliation of begging on this day.” The goal is to make the needy experience the joy of eid like the well to do, and the poor person of today needs to buy new clothes for his children, and eid gifts, and nothing is relevant in this regard today except money. We have seen dozens of times where the poor sells the grains to the same trader from whom the rich people bought those foodstuffs from at a lower price. Was Zakat al-Fitr legislated to enrich the traders at the expense of the poor?

SECOND SERMON
Praise be to Allah Alone. We praise and thank Him. May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon Muhammad, his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

Having said that,

The rulings of ‘Eid:
Allah prescribed for His servants a great religion which did not leave out any aspect of the life affairs without addressing it with clarification, thus came the Sharia that balances between this world and the hereafter, and meets the needs of the soul and body all together. The legitimacy of the Eid does not deviate from this rule, for the true Sharia came with special provisions that guide the behavior of the Muslim on this occasion in accordance with the laws and Sunnah of Allah as follows:
1- It is forbidden to fast on the day of Eid, which is the first day of the Eid days, as reported by Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, that he prayed before the khutbah and then admonished the people, and he said: (O people, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, has forbidden you to fast these two days of ‘Eid. As for the first of them, it is the day of your breaking your fast, while the other is on the day you eat your sacrifice.)
2 – It is desirable to say a lot of takbeer on the night of Eid, because Allah, the Almighty says: “So that you may complete the prescribed period and proclaim the greatness of Allah for guiding you, and perhaps you will be grateful.” (Al-Baqarah: 185). The takbeer starts from the sunset of the last day of Ramadan, till the time of ‘Eid prayer. It should be said generally in all places. There is no takbeer after the obligatory prayers during ‘Eidul Fitri. The description of the takbeer is to say: “Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Lailaha illa Allahu, Wallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Walillahil Hamd.” (Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, there is no god but Allah, and Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, and praise be to Allah) If the takbeer is done thrice, then it is good, as the permissibility in this matter is wide.
3- It is Sunnah to do the ghusl and cleanliness for the ‘Eid. It is also desirable to wear the best clothes, because of the hadith of Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, she said: The Messenger of Allah, (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “There is nothing wrong with any one of you, if he can afford it, buying two garments for Friday, other than his daily work clothes.” (Narrated by Abu Dawud). The day of Eid resembles Friday in terms of meaning, so it is Sunnah to do that.
4- It is Sunnah to eat something before going out to pray, and dates are preferred, because the hadith of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him: “Allah’s Apostle never proceeded (for the prayer) on the Day of `Id-ul-Fitr unless he had eaten some dates. Anas also narrated: The Prophet used to eat odd number of dates” (Narrated by Al-Bukhari) Ibn Hajar reasoned this as blocking the excuse of increasing fasting.
5- It is desirable to go out for the Eid prayer on foot, based on the hadith of Ali, (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: "It is from the Sunnah to leave for the Eid walking, and to eat something before leaving.". (Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi and he classified it as Hassan- good). It is also part of sunnah to leave through a path and return through another. Narrated Jabir bin `Abdullah: On the Day of `Id the Prophet used to return (after offering the `Id prayer) through a way different from that by which he went.” (Bukhari). The scholars have mentioned many reasons for this, including: showing the symbol of Allah going and coming to perform this duty, also to tease the hypocrites, as well as to spread greetings of peace to people on these two paths, including to gain the testimony of the Jinns and mankind on these two paths, and among this is optimism for the good of the change in situation to gaining forgiveness and contentment, and among that is the fulfillment of the need of those who need it on the two paths, There is no objection to the validity of all the reasons mentioned, just as there is no objection to other reasons.
6- There is nothing wrong with women going out on the day of Eid to attend the ‘Eid prayer and witness the sermon, some scholars have preferred that, but that is conditional on safety from fitnah, the evidence is what al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated on the authority of Umm ‘Atiyyah,(may Allah be pleased with her) who said: “The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded us to bring out on’Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha young women, menstruating women and purdah-observing ladies, menstruating women kept back from prayer, but participated in goodness and supplication of the Muslims. I said: Messenger of Allah, one of us does not have an outer garment (to cover her face and body). He said: Let her sister cover her with her outer garment”
It should be noted that it is not permissible for a woman on Eid or otherwise to go out using perfume or wearing clothes that attract attention, or dress that is not legitimate. Allah says: (وقل للمؤمنات يغضضن من أبصارهن ويحفظن فروجهن ولا يبدين زينتهن إلا ما ظهر منها وليضربن بخمرهن على جيوبهن) “And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their chastity, and not to reveal their adornments except what normally appears. Let them draw their veils over their chests.” (An-Nur: 31). The rule concerns all ‘eids and other occasions.
7 – There is nothing wrong with congratulating one another during Eid, such as saying to those you met: “May Allah accept from us and from you, and may Allah return it to us and you with goodness and blessing, and blessed Eid, and so on. Based on the hadith of Abu Umamah Al-Baahili, (may Allah be pleased with him): that when they return from the Eid, some would say to each other: "May Allah accept it from us and from you." Imam Ahmad said: The chain of transmission of the hadith of Abu Umamah is a good chain of transmission. Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy on him, said: “It was narrated on the authority of a group of the Companions that they used to do it, and the imams after them authorized it, such as Ahmad and others.”
Dua

2 Responses

  1. Alhamdulillahi. Very soul lifting. May Allah grant us more opportunities of Ramadan in our lifetime with our beloved fellow muslims around the globe. Amin.

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