ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL

BEING THE FOURTH KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADAN 23/RAMADAN/ 1439AH (8/JUNE/2018CE)

ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID

Praise be to God, who says (قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى (14) وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى ) But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.(87:14-15). I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger, who enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

As to what follow,

Dear faithful, I enjoin you and myself to fear Allah, the Almighty both outwardly and inwardly, Allah says:

”  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ (102) ” {آل عمران : 102}

“O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him].” (3: 102)

Dear brothers in faith, as we approach the end of fasting, we have some recommended acts of worship peculiar to this period, among these is the zakatul-fitri which should be performed close to the eidul-fitri. It is suppose to serve as reparation for any shortcoming in one’s fasting and provision for the needy. Today’s sermon is therefore titled: ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID.

Zaktul-Fitri: Definition of terms:

Linguistically the word zakat means: blessing, growth, purification and best of a material. Allah says: “But those will prosper who purify themselves.” (87: 14)

Allah also says: (خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِمْ بِهَا) “Of their goods, take alms, that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; (9: 103)

Technically it is described as the obligatory due on wealth. (Mugniy)

The word Fitr refers to break of fast, thus when it is attached to zakat as zakatul-fitri, it means the charity given at the end of Ramadan as purification for the body and soul.

Technically as well, zakatul-fitr could be described as the payable amount prescribed by the shariah to be paid by a Muslim as purification for his body and soul for himself and everyone he caters for, occasioned by breaking of fasting at the end of Ramadan in a manner prescribed.

Legal Classification: It is classified as a compulsory duty enjoined by the messenger of Allah (pbuh). Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet (pbuh) made Zakat ul-Fitr compulsory on every slave, freeman, male, female, young and old among the Muslims; one Sa’ of dried dates or one Sa’ of barely, he ordered it should be paid before go out for the (eid) prayer.” (Bukhari)

The philosophy behind its legislation

Zakatul-fitri affects both the payer and the receiver, it purifies the person who fasted both rich and poor from obscenity and lewdness. It is likened to the sujudu-s-sahw (reparation prostration) which is used to restore or make up for any shortcomings in the fasting. As for the wealthy person who fasted, Allah purifies him, while the poor gets back provision beyond what he spent in his payment of the zakatul-fitr. Zakatul-Fitr also has addition benefit of blessing for both the payer and receiver. Ibn Abbas narrated thus: “The Prophet of Allah enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. It is accepted as Zakah for the one who pays it before the `Eid prayer, and it is sadaqah for the one who pays it after the prayer.” (Abu Dawood & Ibn Majah)

In order to satisfy the purpose of enrichment for the poor and protect them from begging on the day of joy and celebration in the community, it must be paid before attendance of people at prayer. Ibn Umar (RA) said: “The messenger of Allah (pbuh) instructed us to pay the zakatul-fitr before people move out for prayer.” Ibn Umar used to pay to those who collect it, and they used to pay it a day or two before the end of Ramadan.” (Bukhari)

The wisdom behind legislating the value to be a Sa’ as the basic quantity per head is that during the three days of eid and a few days thereafter people do not engage in occupational and trading activities, thus the poor man would not find who to employ him, as people are felicitating and resting after a month of fasting. Therefore for a person, the produce from a measure of Sa’ could be enough for consumption in four days at least.

And the amount of Zakat al-Fitr is a small amount which is easy to perform from the common staple food in the community.

Payment of Zakat in monetary value: There are two major opinions regarding this issue as follow:

1- Permissibility of using monetary value: this is the position of Abu hanifah, Sufyan thaoriy, Umar bn Abdul-Azeez, Hassan Al-basriy, Abu Yusuf, Abu Ja’far At-tohaawiy and others. Sufyan thaoriy said: “Using dates or barley is not a condition in Zakat al-Fitr, rather if the monetary value which is most beneficial for the poor is used, it is permissible, because the aim is to enrich the poor against begging as well as satisfy his need on this day (of eid)

Qarah said: “We received a letter from Umar bin Abdul Azeez on Zakatul-Fitr directing that half of Sa’ to be given on every person, or its monetary value which is half a dirham. Al-Hasan said: It’s right to give dirhams in zakatul-fitr. Abu Ishaq said: “I met them giving zakatul fitri in dirhams equivalent to the value of the food.”

Their Proofs: The basis of charity in Islam is money. Allah says: “Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity” (9: 103). They added that the elucidation of the Prophet was to remove difficulty and not as restriction of obligation, because the Bedouins and nomads value money so much, they fall under those who are to pay zakat, therefore for them to give zakat out of their cattle or produce which is readily available seems easier for them. Also, consider that the Prophet declared that on five camels a sheep is due as zakat, whereas it a sheep is never found among camels, thus the word ‘sheep’ was only used to demonstrate the required worth.

Imam Al-baaniy said supporting use of monetary value: “… It is also the opinion of Ibn Taimiyah, he said in Al-Ikhtiyaaraat: “It is permissible to use monetary value for zakatul fitri …” Abu Haneefah said: “The essence of zakatul –fitri is to help the poor ones and cater for their needs in accordance with the prophet’s statement: “Enrich them against seeking –i.e- begging- this day” (Muslim)

Thus zakatul fitri aims to enrich the poor, enrichment could be achieved by giving of dates, grain foods, barley, as well as by giving money, infact, the monetary equivalent could be more beneficial with respect to attending to the need of the poor. Hence if the poor one needs food, then he could purchase it using the money, if he needs clothing or medicine, he could use it for whatever he needs, because the text clearly mentions enrichment, and money does all that. (Al-Mugniy, Ibn Qudaamah, 4/ 295)

2- Non-Permissibility of using monetary value: The proponents of this view hold that items are intended not value and justifying their position using the hadith narrated by Abu Saeed Al-Khudriy: “We, on behalf of every young or old, free man or slave (amongst us), used to take out during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as the Zakat of Fitr one sa’ of grain, or one sa’ of cheese or one sa’ of raisins. And we continued taking out these till Mu’awiya b. Abu Sufyan came to us for pilgrimage or ‘Umra, and addressed the people on the pulpit and said to them: I see that two mudds of zakat out of the wheat (red) of Syria is equal to one sa’ of dates. So the people accepted it. But Abu Sa’id said: I would continue to take out as I used to take out (before, i.e. one Sa’) as long as I live.” (Bukhari)

Etiquettes of Eid.

Eid is the day of gathering of people as a common practice. It is also named ‘Eid’ because it is an annual event.

Eid Prayer: It is commanded by the Prophet – pbuh- on every member of the Muslim community; males and females. Ibn Taimiyah categorized it as obligatory on every Muslim. This is the view of the Hanafi school, a section of the hanbalis and that of Ibn Qayyim.

Umm ‘Atiyya reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded us to bring out on’Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha young women, menstruating women and purdah-observing ladies, menstruating women kept back from prayer, but participated in goodness and supplication of the Muslims. I said: Messenger of Allah, one of us does not have an outer garment (to cover her face and body). He said: Let her sister cover her with her outer garment. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Etiquettes of ‘Eid:

1- To eat before going to ‘eid using dates in odd numbers.

2- To wear the best of clothes: Umar bought a silk cloak from the market, took it to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Take it and adorn yourself with it during the ‘Id and when the delegations visit you.” Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) replied, “This dress is for those who have no share (in the Hereafter).” (bukhari)

3- The woman should attend the ‘eid without applying perfume or being exposed “… and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance.” The Prophet said: “Any woman who apply the perfume and passes by a group of people that they may perceive her scent, is a fornicator.” (Ahmad)

4- It recommended to go to ‘eid taking a walk not by by riding except for those with inability or due to farness of the journey.

5- It recommended as well to alternate the route to and from the ‘eid venue. Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) on the day of ‘Eid used to alternate or change the route.” (bukhari).

6- It is permissible to share pleasantry and greeting and prayers on the day of ‘eid.

Some important notes on issues regarding ‘eid.

1- Caution must be made regarding free mixing between males and females.

2- It is forbidden to have handshake with the opposite sex.

3- Joining family ties is obligatory to the extent that breaking it is regarded as a grievous sin.

4- Eid is a pleasurable occasion which binds the minds and removes hatred and discords etc.

SECOND SERMON

Praise be to Allah Alone. We praise and thank Him. May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon Muhammad, his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

Having said that,

Dear brothers and sisters, we are in the last days of Ramadan, a period we search for the night of majesty, which is better that a thousand month, and historically it has been a period of victory and successes for the Muslim nation. We implore us all to remember in our prayers Allah’s intervention in the affairs our country, Nigeria and pray for the success of the Nigeria project in the face of the challenges militating against its development. Praying for the leaders is an integral part of the sunnah. Fadhil ibn Ayyadh says: “If I had an access for a prayer, I would have made it only for the leader.” He was asked: “O father of Ali: “Explain this to us?.” He said: “If I made it for myself it will not go beyond me, but if I made it for the leader, he become good, and the people and the land get better.” We should also remember our Muslim brothers around the globe, particular in Palestine where Israel continues to spill their blood unjustly, inflict untold injuries on them, in addition to the psychological trauma and unending agony.

Secondly, there are a lot of questions regarding the issue when `Eid-ul-Adha (the Festival of the Sacrifice) or `Eid-ul-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast) coincides with a Friday, which is the weekly festival. Is Jumu`ah Prayer obligatory on those who offer Salat-ul-`Eid (the Festival Prayer) or is it enough to offer Salat-ul-`Eid and offer the Zhuhr (Noon) Prayer instead of Jumu`ah Prayer? Should the Adhan (call to Prayer) be announced in mosques for Zhuhr Prayer? The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ issues the following Fatwa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar):

There are some Marfu` (a Hadith narrated from the Prophet with a connected or disconnected chain of narration) and Mawquf (words or deeds narrated from a Companion of the Prophet that are not attributed to the Prophet) Hadiths in this regard, including:

1- A Hadith narrated by Zayd ibn Arqam (may Allah be pleased with him) that Mu`awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (may Allah be pleased with him) asked him: “Did you witness with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) two `Eids (festival days) that happened to be on the same day?” Zayd said: “Yes” Mu`awiyah asked: “What did he do?” Zayd said: “He offered the `Eid Prayer and gave a choice in offering Jumu`ah Prayer and said: ‘Who wills to perform (i.e. Jumu`ah Prayer) can perform it.'” (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Al-Nasa’y, Ibn Majah, Al-Darimy and Al-Hakim in his book Al-Mustadrak and ranked its Isnad [chain of narrators] as Sahih [authentic],

but it was not reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim and it has a similar report on the condition of Muslim). Al-Dhahaby agreed to that and Al-Nawawy said in his book Al-Majmu`: “Its Isnad is good.”

2- The evidence of Zayd ibn Arqam’s report is a Hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Two `Eids have come on this day (Friday). If anyone does not want to offer the Friday Prayer, the `Eid Prayer is sufficient for him. But we shall offer the Friday Prayer. (Related by Al-Hakim as mentioned above and also related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Al-Jarud, Al-Bayhaqy and others).

3- Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) said: “Two `Eids came on the same day at the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), so he led people in Prayer, and then said: “He who wishes to offer Friday Prayer, it is up to him, and he who wishes to only perform `Eid Prayer and not attend the Friday Prayer, it is up to him.” (Related by Ibn Majah and Al-Tabarany in his book Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir with the wording: Two `Eids coincided on the same day at the time of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him); `Eid-ul-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast) and Jumu`ah (Friday). The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) offered Salat-ul-`Eid (the Festival Prayer), then he turned to face the people and said: “O people you have achieved great good and a reward. We will offer the Jumu`ah Prayer, so if anyone wants to offer it with us, let him do so, and if anyone wants to go back home, let him do so.””

4- Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) said that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Two `Eids (festival days) have occurred together on this day of yours. Whosoever desires, this (`Eid) will suffice for his Friday Prayer, but we are going to perform the Friday Prayer.” (Related by Ibn Majah). Al-Busiry said: “Its Isnad is sound and its narrators are trustworthy.”

5- There is a Hadith Mursal (a Hadith with no Companion of the Prophet in the chain of narration) related by Dhakwan ibn Salih who said: “Two `Eids coincided at the same day (i.e. A festival came on Friday, which is the weekly festival) at the time of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him), `Eid-ul-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast) and Jumu`ah (Friday). He (peace be upon him) offered Salat-ul-`Eid (the Festival Prayer), then he rose and delivered a Khutbah (sermon) to people: “You have achieved great good and a reward. We will offer the Jumu`ah Prayer, so if anyone wants to remain (i.e. in his house), let him do so, and if anyone wants to offer it, let him do so.” (Related by Al-Bayhaqy in his book Al-Sunan Al-Kubra).

6- `Ata’ ibn Abu Rabah narrated: “Ibn Al-Zubayr led us in Prayer for `Eid (Festival day) on Friday in the morning. Then, we went to offer Jumu`ah (Friday) Prayer but he did not come to us and we offered it without him. Ibn `Abbas was in Al-Ta’if and when he came we mentioned that to him. He said: “He achieved the Sunnah (action following the teachings of the Prophet).” (Related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Khuzaymah with another wording and added in the last of the Hadith: Ibn Al-Zubayr said: “I saw `Umar ibn Al-Khattab when two `Eids concur, he would do that.”

7- In the Sahih (Authentic Hadith Book) of Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy upon him) and the Muwatta’ of Imam Malik (may Allah be merciful to him) it is reported on the authority of Abu `Ubayd, the freed slave of Ibn Azhar who said: “I witnessed the `Eid with `Uthman ibn `Affan and it was on Friday. He performed `Eid Prayer before the Khutbah (sermon) and said in the Khutbah: “O people, you had two festivals this day. So, whoever wants to wait for Jumu`ah (Friday) Prayer from the remote places, let him do so and whoever wants to return home, I permit him.”

8- It is reported on the authority of `Aly ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, when two festivals (i.e. A `Eid and Friday) happened to come together in one day: “Whoever wants to offer the two Prayers, let him do so and whoever wants to sit, let him do so.” Sufyan said: “He means to sit in his house.” (Related by `Abdul-Razzaq in Al-Musannaf and a similar report is related by Ibn Abu Shaybah).

According to these Marfu` Hadiths, Mawquf Athars (narrations from the Companions) and what was maintained by the majority of scholars regarding the meaning of these reports, the Committee states the following rulings:

1- Whosoever attends Salat-ul-`Eid (the Festival Prayer), it is allowable for him to overlook Jumu`ah Prayer and offer Zhuhr Prayer instead of it, but it is better to offer the Jumu`ah Prayer with people.

2- If someone does not attend Salat-ul-`Eid, he is not allowed to have this Rukhsah (concession) and it is obligatory on him to perform the Jumu`ah Prayer. Therefore, it is obligatory on him to go to the mosque and offer Jumu`ah Prayer and if there isn’t a sufficient number to perform Jumu`ah Prayer, it should be offered as Zhuhr Prayer.

3- It is obligatory on the Imam (one who leads the congregational Prayer) of the mosque where the Jumu`ah is offered to perform Jumu`ah Prayer on this day, so that whoever wants to witness it can do so. In addition, if someone does not perform Salat-ul-`Eid and there is not a sufficient number required for offering Jumu`ah Prayer, they may offer it as a Zhuhr Prayer.

4- Whoever attends the `Eid Prayer and observes the Rukhsah should offer it as Zhuhr when its time is due.

5- It is not allowable in this time to announce Adhan (call to Prayer) except in the mosques where the Jumu`ah Prayer is offered and therefore the Adhan for the Zhuhr Prayer is not prescribed on this day.

6- The claim that whoever attends Salat-ul-`Eid will be not required to perform neither the Jumu`ah Prayer nor the Zhuhr Prayer on this day, is a mistaken opinion. For this reason, scholars avoided it and ruled that is a mistake, because it disagrees with the Sunnah and involves cancellation of an obligatory act without evidence. Those who maintained this opinion might not have comprehended what is mentioned in this issue from Hadiths and reports which permitted a person who attended Salat-ul-`Eid not to attend the Jumu`ah Prayer and that it is obligatory on him to perform it as a Zhuhr Prayer.

And Allah knows best.

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.

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