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RULINGS OF THE SACRIFICE AND ETIQUETTES OF EID-UL ADHA 2023

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICIENT, THE MERCIFUL

BEING THE FOURTH KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF DHUL-HIJJAH, DATED 5TH DHUL-HIJJAH 1444AH (23RD JUNE, 2023CE)

RULINGS OF THE SACRIFICE AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID-UL ADHA

THE FIRST SERMON

All Praises belong to Allah, among Whose greatest favours on His servants is that he made the paths of goodness easy for them, and He made for them times and occasions in which they increase in their reward and righteous deeds. Among these times are the first ten days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah, which Allah Ta’alah favoured over all other days, and the reward for those who did righteous deeds (in them) are multiplied. I bear witness that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah alone. He has no partner, and glorified He is above what they associate with Him. I bear witness that Muhammad is His true and trustworthy servant and Messenger, may Blessings of Allah be upon him, his family and his companions who judged with the truth and by it, they were just. May He also grant him Peace – copious bountiful Peace.

Thereafter… Servants of Allah, I enjoin you and myself with the fear of Allah Almighty, secretly and openly. It is indeed the desired goal of all acts of worship and recommended good deeds, in tandem with the Words of Allah Ta’alah: (لَنْ يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَكِنْ يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَى مِنْكُمْ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَIt is neither the flesh nor blood (of the sacricial animal) that reaches Allah, but rather it is your piety that reaches. It is thus that Allah subjected them (the animals) to you, that you glorify Allah for His Guidance to you. Give glad tidings to those that do good.” (al-Hajj: 37).

Brothers in faith! This is the first sermon in the month of Dhul-Hijjah, the last of the appointed month for the performance of hajj, the fifth pillar of Islam and the core of the rites of mandatory hajj. The topic of today’s khutbah is: RULINGS OF THE SACRIFICE AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID-UL ADHA

Honourable Muslims, Allah, the Exalted, made the sacrifice an expanse provision for people on the day of eid. Allah commanded the father of the prophets- Irahim (A.S) to slaughter his son- Isma’eel so he responded to Allah’s command with nursing any doubt, so Allah sent a ransom from the heaven (وَفَدَيْنَاهُ بِذِبْحٍ عَظِيمٍ) “And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice.” (As-Saffaat: 107). From that time people have been slaughtering the cattle in compliance with the command of Allah because that is one of the virtuous acts of obedience. The Udh-hiyyah is an emphatic sunnah, leaving it despite the capability is disliked.

Its definition and meaning, literally and technically: Al-Jawhari narrated Al-Asma’i said that the word Udh-hiyyah- Sacrifice has four linguistic formats: First- (أُضحيّة) Udh-hiyyah,Second- (إِضحيّة) Idh-hiyyah where the starting hamzah gets a dhammah or Kasrah diacritical mark, the plural for them is (أضاحي) Adhaahiy. The third form is (ضحيّة) Dhahiyyah with the plural being (ضحايا) Dhahaayaa. The fourth is (أضحاة) Adh-haah, and the plural is (أضحى) Adh-haa. Like the word (أرطأة) and (أرطى). The word is used to name “the day”. Nawawi mentions it in Tahrir Al-Tanbeeh. Al-Qadi said: “It (the sacrifice) is named as such because it is done in the forenoon, which is the height of the day.”

Technically: It is the name for what is slaughtered including the camels, cows and sheep on the Day of Sacrifice and the days of Tashreeq, as an act of closeness to Allah, the Almighty.

The ruling: Majority of the scholars said that the sacrifice of eid is an emphasized sunnah while some of them said that is mandatory for anyone who is able to do it because the prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) kept the practice and did not leave it at anytime, and he indeed harped on it with his words, and he did it persistently. The majority of scholars are of the opinion that the sacrifice is a emphasized Sunnah, because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, preserved it, adhered to it, and never left it, and it disliked to leave it for he who possess the ability to do it. Others described it as obligatory on the people of a Muslim household whose member are capable to do it. That is based on the saying of Allah: (فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ) “so pray to your Lord (Allah) and slaughter (the animal)…” (al-Kauthaar: 2). And the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Whoever slaughtered before the prayer, let him repeat it” [Agreed upon].

Its virtue: There is no authentic hadith mentioned concerning the virtue of the sacrifice except that the Prophet, peace be upon him, was committed to it. Rather, there were hadiths which are free from comment, but some of them strengthen each other, and among them is the saying of the Messenger, peace be upon him: “The son of Adam does no act that is most beloved before Allah as the slaughtering on the day of sacrifice. The animal shall come on the day of resurrection with its horns, furs, and hooves. And verily the blood will appear in the presence of Allah before it drops on the ground, thus make people happy with it.” [Narrated by Ibn Majah and Al-Tirmidhi and he declared it good].

And he, peace be upon him, said, when they said to him: “What are these sacrifices? He said: “The Sunnah of your father Ibrahim.” They said: What do we have from it? He said: “For every hair a good deed.” They said: What about wool? He said: “For every hair of wool, there is a good deed.” [Narrated by Ibn Majah and Al-Tirmidhi, and he classed it as hasan]

The time of slaughtering: It has a specific time in the Sharia, which is from after the Eid prayer on the Day of Sacrifice until sunset on the thirteenth day of Dhul-Hijjah. That is the practice of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, he would slaughter on the day of Sacrifice and on the three days of Tashreeq. Although the Day of Sacrifice is better, and it is not permissible to delay it beyond these days nor before them. The Prophet, peace be upon him, addressed his companions on the Day of Sacrifice, and said: “The first thing we begin with on this day of ours is to pray, then we return home to slaughter the sacrifice. And whoever slaughters in that way has indeed done our sunnah correctly, and whoever slaughters before that, then it is only meat for his family” (Bukhari)The

SOME OF THE RULINGS AND CONDITIONS

Five conditions are necessary for the sacrifice:

1. The intention: That is because the sacrifice is an act of seeking closeness to Allah, and every act that one does to seek nearness to Allah, for it to be valid and acceptable, needs good intention, because of r his saying – peace and blessings be upon him – in the authentic hadith: “Actions are only by intentions, and every person shall have what he intended” (Bukhari and Muslim). And the intention is at the time of slaughter. If he makes the intention even before that time, is suffices, based on the well-known sayings of scholars of jurisprudence (fiqh).

2. The sacrifice should be livestock animals, and these include camel, cow, bull, ram and goat and other types of livestock, and this include both male and female animals, as well as castrated and uncastrated animals. Anything outside of these types is not permissible, based on the most well-known four schools of fiqh. And he made clear for us, the permissible age for the animal. He said: “Sacrifice only a grown-up animal, unless it is difficult for you, in which case sacrifice a ram (of even less than a year, but more than six months’ age).” (Muslim). So he indicated that he must be a matured animal and for the camels, it must be at least five years, for the cow, it must be at least two years, for the goat, it must be at least a year old while for the ram, it must be at least six months old.

3. This sacrifice (animal) must be free from defects that prevent it from being permissible. The prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) explained these defects. It has been related on the authority of Al-Baraa ibn ‘Aazib (may Allah be pleased with him) that the prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) said: “There are four that will not do as sacrifices: The animal that clearly has one bad eye: the sick animals that is obviously sick; the lame animal with an obvious lamp; and the animal that is so emaciated that it is as if there is no marrow in its bones” (Abu Daawud). And there are other defects that should be avoided, such as the one that has more than half of its horn or its ears cut, because it is an act of worship for Allah, and the best must be selected. (وَلاَ تَيَمَّمُوا الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنْفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُمْ بِآخِذِيهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ تُغْمِضُواْ فِيهِ) “and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein.” (Al-Baqarah: 267). And “Allah is pure, he does not accept except what is pure.”

4. To slaughter the animal on the day of Eid, or the two days after it, according to Abu Hanifa and Ahmad bin Hanbal. As-Shafi’i jurists allow slaughtering on the four days of Eid, as evidenced by his saying (Peace and Blessings be upon him): “all the passes of Makkah are a thoroughfare and a place of sacrifice, all the days of Tashreeq (11th, 12th, and 13th of Zul-Hijjah) are days of slaughtering (of animals as a sacrifice).” (Ahmad and Al-Buzaar). And the days of al-Tashreeq: are the second, third and fourth days of Eid.

5. That the slaughtering takes place after the Eid prayer, according to the consensus of the Muslims, and whoever slaughters before the Eid prayer, then it is meat that he offered to his family, or charity that he has given, and he has not accomplished the Sunnah, and he must slaughter another one. Al-Baraa ibn A’azib (may Allah eb pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings be upon him) addressed us on the day of Eidul-Adha after the prayer, and he said: Whoever prays our prayers and then does our sacrifice (of slaughtering), he has accomplished the sacrifice, but whoever performs the sacrifice before the prayer, that is only a sheep to obtain meat.” (Ahmad, Bukhari and Muslim)

THE ETIQUETTE OF SLAUGHTERING

The Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) also explained to us the manner and etiquette of slaughtering, and he guided us to the straight path. Among the most important of them are:

Firstly, the name of Allah must be mentioned, facing the direction of the Qiblah, because the name of Allah is a condition for the sacrificial animal to be halaal, because Allah Ta’alah says in his precise Book: (فَكُلُواْ مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللهِ علَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ) “So eat of that (meat) on which Allah’s Name has been pronounced (while slaughtering the animal), if you are believers in His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.).” (Al-An’aam:118), and (ولاَ تَأْكُلُواْ مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللهِ علَيْهِ وَإِنُّهُ لَفِسْقٌ) “Eat not (O believers) of that (meat) on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of the slaughtering of the animal), for sure it is Fisq (a sin and disobedience of Allah).” (Al-An’aam:121).

Secondly, the Sunnah is for the Muslim who is capable and able to do it well to slaughter his own sacrifice himself. The prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) slaughtered it with his own hands. However, if the person is not able to do the slaughtering well, then he should be there to witness it. The prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) said to his daughter, Faatimah, may Allah be pleased with her: “Get up and go to witness the slaughtering of your sacrifice. You will be forgiven, with the first drop of its blood all sin you committed. And then say “Verily, my Salat (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).” (Al-An’aam:162). One of the companions said: O Messenger of Allah, is this for you and your family in particular, or for the muslims in general? The Messenger of Allah  (Peace and Blessings be upon him)  said: “Rather, it’s for muslims in general.” (Tirmidhiy and Abu Daawud).

Thirdly, the person who offers the sacrifice must seek the face of Allah the Most Mighty and Sublime with his sacrifice, so that he obtains His Reward and His Pleasure. It was narrated from the Messenger of Allah  (Peace and Blessings be upon him) that he said: “Whoever slaughters a good sacrifice himself, hoping to be rewarded for the sacrifice, it will be a shield for him from the Fire.” (Al-Mundhiriy mentioned this hadith in his book, At-Targheeb wa-Tarheeb).

Fourth: It is recommended to be kind to animals and to use a sharp tool in order to get the sacrifice ready without torturing it. “Allah has decreed proficiency in all things, so when you kill, kill well, and when you slaughter, slaughter will. Let one of you sharpen his blade and spare suffering to the animal he slaughters” (Muslim). And we should not sharpen the knife in front of the animal, and that we not slaughter one while other ones are looking.

Fifth: It is obligatory upon us to drain the blood by cutting off the throat and esophagus of the animal, and we should complete that by cutting off the jugular organs, so that this would be a relief and leniency for the animal.

Sixth: The Sunnah is for a Muslim to eat from his sacrifice and give as a gift and to feed his family, neighbors, friends, and the poor and needy among the Muslims. Allah Ta’alah says: (فإَذَا وَجَبَتْ جُنُوبُهَا فَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُواْ الْقَانِعَ وَالْمُعْتَرَّ) “Then, when they are down on their sides (after slaughter), eat thereof, and feed the beggar who does not ask (men), and the beggar who asks (men).” (Al-Hajj: 36). Some of the scholars of fiqh preferred that he divide it into three thirds, one third to his family and one third to his neighbors and friends, even if they are rich, as a gift, and one third to the poor and needy. It is not permissible to give the butcher part of it as wage for him except if given as sadaqah or gift, and it is not permissible to sell it according to most of the scholars of fiqh.

Seventh: It is permissible for the people of one household to combine and share an animal, whether it is sheep, camels or cows, based on the hadith of Abu Aqil Zahr ibn Ma’bad on the authority of his grandfather, on the authority of Abdullah ibn Hisham, that he said: “The Messenger of Allah  (Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to sacrifice one sheep on behalf of all his family” (Ahmad and Al-Haakim). As for other than members of one household, the majority of scholars of fiqh opine that it is permitted to share a sacrifice if it is a camel or cow, and the camel is permissible for seven or less. Jaabir ibn Abdillah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “We sacrificed with the Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings be upon him) in Al-Hudaybiyah. The camel is on behalf of seven people, and cow also on behalf of seven people” (Muslim and others). And we should not forget that whoever wants to slaughter a sacrifice should not remove any of his hair or nails from when the new moon (of Dhul-Hijjah) begins, based on the saying of the Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings be upon him): “He who has a sacrificial animal with him whom (he intends) to offer as sacrifice, and he enters the month of Zul-Hijjah, he should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed until he has sacrificed the animal.” (Muslim on the authority of Um Salamah).

We ask Allah Ta’alah to accept from us and from you our good deeds and to help us and you to follow the Sunnah of the Choosen one – the Prophet – and to work with it, and to remain steadfast on the Truth. Indeed, He is capable over all things.

THE SECOND SERMON:

Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds, we shower blessings and salutation eon the best of creation, our Master, our beloved Muhammad, and upon his family, companions.

Thereafter, dear brothers in faith, we need to focus on the Etiquettes of Eidul- Adha which is closeby because eid is an act of worship, which is a peculiar quality of this Ummah, and conspicuous symbol of the Islam, you therefore need to show concern and venerate it. Allah, the Exalted says: (ذَلِكَ وَمَن يُعَظِّمْ شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِن تَقْوَى الْقُلُوبِ) That is so. And whoever honours the symbols of Allah, it is certainly out of the piety of the heart.” (Al-Hajj: 32).

Here are brief quick points with some etiquettes and rulings of Eidul Adha.

1- Coming early for prayer: Allah Almighty said: (فَاسْتَبِقُواْ الْخَيْرَاتِ) {So hasten to do good deeds} [Al-Baqara: 148] and Eid is one of the greatest good deeds and acts of worship. Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy on him, said: Chapter of going early to Eid, then he mentioned the hadith of Al-Bara’ – may Allah be pleased with him – he said: The Prophet, peace be upon him, spoke to us on the day of sacrifice, and he said: (The first thing we do on this day of ours is to pray…)

2- Making Takbir: It is prescribed to make takbeer after the five daily prayers beginning from the dawn of the day of Arafah until the evening of the last day of Tashreeq in Dhul- Hijjah, Allah the Exalted says: (وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ) And remember Allah during ˹these˺ appointed days.” (Al-baqarah: 203). The wording is: Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Lailaaha illa Allahu, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Wali-LLahil Hamd. Meaning: Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, there is no deity worthy of worship, Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, and to Allah belong praise. It is Sunnah for men to recite it aloud in mosques, markets, homes, and after prayers, as a declaration of glorification of Allah, and as an expression of worship and gratitude to Him.

3- Slaughtering the sacrifice: This takes place after the Eid prayer, as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: (Whoever slaughtered (his sacrifice) before the prayer, let him prepare another one in its place, and whoever has not slaughtered, let him offer a sacrifice) [Narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim]. The duration time to slaughter is four days; the day of slaughter, and three days of Tashreeq, as established from the Prophet, peace be upon him, he said: “All the days of al-Tashreeq are for slaughtering.” [Narrated by Ahmad].

4- To take ghusl bath, applying perfume for men and wearing the best clothes without extravagance, without arrogance, without dragging cloth on the ground, and without shaving the beard. As for women, it is prescribed for them to go out to the Eid prayer ground without displaying their ornament or using perfume.

5- Eating from the sacrifice: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, would not eat until he returned from the prayer ground and would eat from his sacrifice.

6- Going to the Eid prayer ground on foot, if possible: The Sunnah is to pray at the Eid praying ground, as the Messenger, peace be upon him, did, unless there is an excuse such as rain, for example, in which case he should pray in the mosque.

7- Praying with Muslims and the desirability of attending the sermon: What was favored by the reliable among the scholars, such as Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah – may Allah have mercy on him, is that the Eid prayer is obligatory based on the saying of Almighty Allah: (فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ) “So pray to your Lord and sacrifice” [Al-Kawthar: 2].

8- Alternating the road to and from Eid: It is desirable for you to go to the Eid praying ground through one road and return through another, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, did.

9- Eid greetings: There is nothing wrong with saying: May Allah accept from us and from you.

10- Getting together for food: It is Sunnah for people to get together for food on Eid day. Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “The getting together of people for food on the two days of Eids and the days of Tashreeq is Sunnah, and it is part of the symbols of Islam that the Prophet (peace be upon him) established.” (Majmul Fatawa: 25: 298)

Beware – my dear Muslim brother – of falling into some of the mistakes that some people fell into, including:

having fun with things that are forbidden on the days of Eid: such as listening to forbidden song, watching malicious films, free-mixing between men and women who are not mahrams, and other reprehensible things, including extravagance and lavish spending.

In conclusion, do not forget – my dear Muslim brother – to be keen on righteous and good deeds such as upholding ties of kinship, visiting relatives, shunning enmity, envy and hatred, purifying the heart from them, and being sympathetic to the poor, the needy and the orphans, helping them and making them happy.

Dua.

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