IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL
BEING THE THIRD KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM, 19/MUHARRAM/1438AH (21TH/OCTOBER/2016CE)
THE ACTS OF WORSHIP AND ITS EFFECT IN REFORMATION OF INDIVIDUAL AND THE SOCIETY
All praises are due to Allah Who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness. Allah says:
﴿وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ (56) مَا أُرِيدُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ رِزْقٍ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ يُطْعِمُونِ (57) إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ﴾ [الذاريات :51\ 56-58]
And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me. I do not want from them any provision, nor do I want them to feed Me. Indeed, it is Allah who is the [continual] Provider, the firm possessor of strength. (51: 56-58)
I testify there is no god but Allah alone, He has no associate, and I testify that Muhammad (pbuh) is the servant of Allah and His messenger. May Allah bestow peace and blessings on him (pbuh), his families, pious companions and all those who follow his guidance till the day of recompense.
O people, I enjoin you and myself to fear Allah, for that is the divine recommendation to every person that seeks to gain the . Allah says:
﴿يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ ﴾
“O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him]. (3: 102)
Today’s sermon is titled “THE ROLE OF WORSHIP IN INDIVIDUAL AND NATION BUILDING” under a major theme of THE PROPHETIC HIJRAH AND NATION BUILDING.
Worship occupies a high rank in Islam which makes it very important to speak about in every time, place, and by all people. Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “And I (Allâh) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone). * I seek not any provision from them (i.e. provision for themselves or for My creatures) nor do I ask that they should feed Me (i.e. feed themselves or My creatures). * Verily, Allâh is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.” [ Az-Zariyat: 65 – 67]
Ibn Jarir (may Allah bestow mercy on his soul) said: “Because of our worship and subjugation.” [ See: Muhammad ibn Jarir At-Tabary, Jami` Al Bayan vol. 27, p. 12 Dar Al Fikr edition, Beirut 1405 AH.]
When the types of worship are Tawqifiyyah (To be explained by the Wise Law-Giver (Allah)), human beings needed Prophets and Messengers (may peace and blessings be upon them) who receive commands and prohibitions from Allah (Glory be to Him) through revelation.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “And verily, We have sent among every Ummah(community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allâh (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Tâghût (all false deities i.e. do not worship Tâghût besides Allâh).” Then of them were some whom Allâh guided, and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied (the truth).” [ An-Nahl: 36]
The meaning is: “O people, we have sent, in the nations before you, messengers as we sent for you to worship Allah alone without having a partner, so they worshipped Him alone and devoted worship for Him.” [ Jami` Al Bayan vol. 14, p. 103]
Scholars and callers to Allah have to explain to the people everything related to the acts of worship, its conditions, and pillars which make them correct and things which make them null and void.
Scholars are the heirs of Prophets. It was reported in the Sahih (book of authentic Hadiths) the command of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to Mu`adh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him): “You are going to people of a (Divine) Book. First of all invite them to worship Allah (alone) and when they come to know Allah, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers in every day and night; and if they start offering these prayers, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them the Zakat. And it is to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them; and if they obey you in that, take Zakat from them and avoid (don’t take) the best property of the people as Zakat.” [ Al Bukhari and Muslim]
This Hadith is a proof on the importance of teaching obligatory duties in the acts of worship and morals after implanting and correcting faith.
1- The concept of the acts of worship in Islam:
The main approach to this issue is the definition of worship in the language and in terminology along with mentioning some types of worship, its ranks in the Islamic Shari`ah,and explaining the conditions of accepting it.
Definition of worship:
Worship in the language is: Cringing and the submission. Al Razy said: “The origin of servitude is submission and the meaning of worship is obedience and asceticism.” [ See: Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr Ar-Razy, Mukhtar As-Sihah p. 172 Lebanon Bookmaker Edition, Beirut 1415 AH.]
Idiomatically: “It is a collective name for the apparent and hidden words and actions that Allah loves.” [ See: Sheikh `Abdur-Rahman As-Sa`dy, “Taysir Al Karim Ar-Rahman” p. 29 Ar-RisalahFoundation, Beirut 1421 AH.]
It is taken from this definition that the meaning of worship encompasses all movements of people.
Every action or abstention may become an act of worship by recalling the intention of obeying Allah and acting according to the Shari`ah in both application and performance.
It was said in the definition of worship: It is compliance to the commands of Allah and avoidance of His Prohibitions.
This definition hints to a serious issue which is explaining that the source for receiving commands and prohibitions pertaining to the acts of worship is Allah (may He be Exalted), so no one is entitled to legislate for the people.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “Or have they partners (with Allâh – false gods) who have instituted for them a religion which Allâh has not ordained?” [Ash-Shura: 21]
It is not permissible for anyone of the creatures to legislate for the people or to lay down codes for them: not a scholar, an amir, a clan head, a pious person, or anyone else.
Types of worship:
Worship is of many types, of which are:
Invocation: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad peace be upon him) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor).” [ Al Baqarah: 186]
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Invocation is worship.” [ At-Tirmidhy and others]
Fear: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “but fear Me, if you are (true) believers.” [ Al `Imran: 175]
Hope: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “Those whom they call upon [like `Isâ (Jesus) — son of Maryam (Mary), `Uzair (Ezra), angel] desire (for themselves) means of access to their Lord (Allâh), as to which of them should be the nearest; and they [`Isa (Jesus), `Uzair(Ezra), angels and others] hope for His Mercy and fear His Torment. Verily, the Torment of your Lord is (something) to be afraid of!” [ Al Isra’: 57]
Asking for help: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).” [ Al Fatihah: 5]
Appeal for help: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “(Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): ”I will help you with a thousand of the angels each behind the other (following one another) in succession.” [ Al Anfal: 9]
Salah: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “Verily, As-Salât (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.” [ An-Nisa’: 103]
Fasting: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fast) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious).” [ Al Baqarah: 183]
Zakah: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Zâlimûn (wrong-doers).”[ Al Baqarah: 254]
Hajj: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka’bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allâh, those who can afford the expenses (for one’s conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves [i.e. denies Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), then he is a disbeliever of Allâh], then Allâh stands not in need of any of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists).” [ Al `Imran: 97] along with other apparent and hidden bodily and heart actions. Degrees of acts of worship:
The acts of worship have different degrees, of which are: Obligatory duties, Sunan, and desirable acts.
Some actions are entitled for all Muslims and some are entitled for the notables.
The reason for the difference of worship degrees is the objectives of the Law-Giver (Allah), such as commanding or abstention, affirmation or not.
Obligatory duties in the Shari`ah are the actions for which a doer is rewarded and the one who does not do it deserves punishment. Of its examples are: Establishing Salah, observing the fast during the month of Ramadan, and performing Hajj for the Sacred House of Allah for those who can afford it.
The next rank is: The recommended or the desirable which its doer shall be rewarded and the one who abandons it shall not be punished. Of its examples: Offering two Rak`ahs before the Fajr Salah and fasting Mondays and Thursdays.
The most beloved acts of worship to Allah:
Indeed, the most beloved acts of worship to Allah are the obligatory duties then Sunan then desirable acts as was authentically reported from the Messenger (peace be upon him) in the Divine Hadith in which Allah says: “I will declare war against him who shows hostility to a pious worshipper of Mine. And the most beloved things with which My Servant comes nearer to Me, is what I have enjoined upon him; and My Servant keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil (praying or doing extra deeds besides what is obligatory) till I love him, so I become his sense of hearing with which he hears, and his sense of sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he grips, and his leg with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks for My Protection (Refuge), I will protect him; (i.e. give him My Refuge),and I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him.” [ Al Bukhari]
Ibn Hajar said: It is taken that performance of obligatory duties is the most beloved to Allah.
At-Tufy said: The command of obligatory duties is imperative and punishment is taken place for neglecting them unlike the Nafl (desirable Sunan) even if it shares acquisition of reward with obligatory duties, therefore obligatory duties are the most perfect; hence they are more beloved to Allah (may He be Exalted). [ Ibn Hajar, Fathul-Bary vol. 12, p. 343]
Conditions for accepting the acts of worship:
Acceptance of the acts of worship is due to certain conditions that must exist. These conditions trace back to two basic matters which are:
Firstly is Sincerity which means to do the action solely for Allah and to seek His Reward without associating any partner with Him in worship.
The proof to this condition from the Qur’an is Allah’s Saying (may He be Exalted): “And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allâh, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) and give Zakât, and that is the right religion.” [Al Bayyinah: 5]
And Allah’s Saying: “Say (O Muhammad peace be upon him): “I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me that your Ilâh (God) is One Ilâh (God i.e. Allâh). So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.”” [ Al Kahf: 110]
And Allah’s Saying: “Say (O Muhammad peace be upon him): “Allâh Alone I worship by doing religious deeds sincerely for His sake only (and not to show off, and not to set up rivals with Him in worship.)” [ Az-Zumar: 14]
The evidence from the Sunnah is the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him): “Actions are based on intention. and a person will get the reward according to his intention.” [ Al Bukhari and Muslim]
And the Prophet’s saying: “Verily, Allah likes three things for you and disapproves three things for you. He likes that you should worship Him Alone, not to associate anything with Him (in worship),and that you give good counsel to those that Allah has put in authority over you. and to hold fast to the Rope of Allah.” [ Imam Malik in the Muwatta’]
Secondly is Persistence: The meaning is to follow the footsteps of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in performing the acts of worship and not to violate his way and Sunnah.
There are many proofs to the obligation of following the Prophet (peace be upon him) from the Qur’an and the Sunnah, of which include:
Allah’s Saying: “Indeed, in the Messenger of Allâh (Muhammad peace be upon him) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allâh and the Last Day, and remembers Allâh much.” [ Al Ahzab: 21]
And His saying: “If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way (i.e. to preach in a plain way).”” [ An-Nur: 54]
And His saying: “And let those who oppose the Messenger’s (Muhammad peace be upon him) commandment (i.e. his Sunnah —legal ways— orders, acts of worship, statements, etc.) (among the sects) beware, lest some Fitnah (disbelief, trials, afflictions, earthquakes, killing, overpowered by a tyrant) should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.” [ An-Nur: 63]
As for the proofs from the Sunnah, they are as follow:
The Prophet’s saying about Salah: “Offer Salah as you have seen me offering it.” [ Al Bukhari and Muslim]
The Prophet’s saying about Hajj: “Take from me your pilgrimage rites, take from me your pilgrimage rites.” [ Al Bayhaqy in As-Sunan Al Kubra]
All proofs reported in the prohibition of innovations in religion is a proof to the obligatory of obeying the Prophet (peace be upon him), as in his saying: “If anyone introduces in our matter something which does not belong to it, it will be rejected.” [ Al Bukhari and Muslim]
2- Importance of the acts of worship and their status in Islam:
There is a high rank for the acts of worship in Islam which its importance and status show up in the following matters:
1- Worship is the main goal for the creation of Jinn and mankind: Allah (may He be Exalted) says: And I (Allâh) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone). I seek not any provision from them (i.e. provision for themselves or for My creatures) nor do I ask that they should feed Me (i.e. feed themselves or My creatures). *Verily, Allâh is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.” [ Az-Zariyat: 56]
2- Singling out Allah in worship gives freedom from submission and humiliation to all false gods.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “Certainly, you shall have no authority over My slaves, except those who follow you of the Ghâwûn (Mushrikûn and those who go astray, criminals, polytheists, and evil-doers).” [ Al Hijr: 42]
He also said: “Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allâh are slaves like you. So call upon them and let them answer you if you are truthful.” [ Al A`raf: 194]
3– Helping and empowerment for the righteous servants of Allah. Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “Those (Muslim rulers) who, if We give them power in the land, (they) enjoin Iqamat-as-Salât. [i.e. to perform the five compulsory congregational Salât (prayers) (the males in mosques)], pay the Zakât and they enjoin Al-Ma’rûf (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism and all thatIslâm orders one to do), and forbid Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism and all that Islâmhas forbidden) [i.e. they make the Qur’ân as the law of their country in all the spheres of life]. And with Allâh rests the end of (all) matters (of creatures).” [ Al-Hajj: 40 – 41]
4- Attributing them to Allah (may He be Exalted) as a kind of honoring: Allah (may He be Exalted) says about the qualities of the righteous servants of Allah: “And the (faithful) slaves of the Most Gracious (Allâh) are those who walk on the earth in humility and sedateness, and when the foolish address them (with bad words) they reply back with mild words of gentleness.” [ Al Furqan: 64]
Allah (Exalted be He) says: “So, announce the good news to My slaves, those who listen to the Word [good advice Lâ ilâha illallâh – (none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh) and Islâmic Monotheism] and follow the best thereof (i.e. worship Allâh Alone, repent to Him and avoid Tâghût) those are (the ones) whom Allâh has guided and those are men of understanding.” [ Az-Zumar: 17 – 18]
5- Entering Paradise and gaining the greatest pleasure of Allah. Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “Verily, those who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh – Islâmic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds, shall have the Gardens of Al-Firdaus (Paradise) for their entertainment.*Wherein they shall dwell forever. No desire will they have for removal therefrom.” [ Al Kahf: 107 – 108]
3- The impact of worship in reforming individuals and societies:
Performance of the acts of worship which Allah legislated as should and obeying Allah in His Commands and Rites shall affect positively the behavior of individuals and societies because the real happiness of nations is in their sound creed and obedience to their master (Glorified and Exalted be He).
For instance, Salah is the core of religion which forbids its performers of fornication and deniable acts.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “And perform As-Salât (Iqamât-as-Salât). Verily, As-Salât(the prayer) prevents from Al-Fahshâ’ (i.e. great sins of every kind, unlawful sexual intercourse) and Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism, and every kind of evil wicked deed) and the remembering (praising) of (you by) Allâh (in front of the angels) is greater indeed [than your remembering (praising) of Allâh in prayers]. And Allâh knows what you do.” [ Al `Ankabut: 45]
They purify people’s souls, and rectify their behavior. Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “If there was a river at the door of anyone of you and he took a bath in it five times a day would you notice any dirt on him?” They said, “Not a trace of dirt would be left.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) added, “That is the example of the five prayers with which Allah blots out (annuls) evil deeds.” [ At-Tirmidhy]
Likewise, fasting helps on piety and promotes it as Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fast) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious).” [ Al Baqarah: 183]
Zakah is a social obligation to which Islam exhorted to purify the souls of the rich from stinginess and miserliness, and purify the souls of the poor from rancor and envy, as Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it, and invoke Allâh for them.” [ At-Tawbah: 103]
Zakah was ordained to establish the rites of Islam, such as Jihad (fighting), buildingmasjids, schools, and others.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “As-Sadaqât (here it means Zakât) are only for the Fuqarâ’(poor), and Al-Masâkin (the needy), and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islâm); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allâh‘s Cause (i.e. for Mujâhidûn — those fighting in a holy battle), and for the wayfarer (a traveler who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allâh. And Allâh is All-Knower, All-Wise.” [ At-Tawbah: 60]
As for Hajj, it is a complete divine school that strengthens the relationship between a person and his Lord in a way that purifies his soul, improves his morals, and teaches him spending and sacrifice.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says: “The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months (i.e. the 10th month, the 11th month and the first ten days of the 12th month of the Islâmic calendar, i.e. two months and ten days). So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihrâm), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj.” [ Al Baqarah: 197]
Enjoining good and forbidding evil protects the society from corrupted dogmas deviant natures, and pervert behaviors: “Why do not the rabbis and the religious learned men forbid them from uttering sinful words and from eating illegal things. Evil indeed is that which they have been performing.” [Al Ma’idah: 63]
Thus, we see the positive impacts of the acts of worship, no matter their types, constitute a necessary factor in building a Muslim in dogmatic, worship, and behavioral sides, and helps to form the ideal society which all philosophies, laws, and morals failed to depict and identify its cultural features.
Of what has been mentioned earlier, it becomes clear to us that worship is the goal of creating man and that life has no importance unless all its features express the meanings of subjection to Allah (Glory be to Him).
Worship is not, as most people think, limited only to the acts of worship, but the circle of worship widens to include all movements of man and encompass all aspects of life.
Worship has impacts on individuals and society as well: Some of these impacts are current such as purifying oneself and spreading goodness and virtue among people, and some shall be in the Day of Recompense in the gardens of delight; “The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, Except him who comes to Allâh with a clean heart [clean from Shirk (polytheism) and Nifâq (hypocrisy)],” and praise be to Allah by Whose Favor good actions are accomplished.
All praises are due to Allah Who created the heavens and the earth. May Allah bestow peace and blessings on Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), his families, his pious companions and all those who follow his guidance.
Allah says: “ Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded.” (16: 90)
Servants of Allah, Allah- the Exalted commands of three qualities and forbids other three in the verse mentioned earlier: He orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. This verse is an important principle of engagement for those who wish to meet his Lord in tranquility.
Dear brothers and Sisters in Islam, as mentioned last week, let’s turn our attention to the Judiciary in Nigeria, which is expected to be of impeccable standards to parade best characters among Judges but on the contrary have exhibited lowly disposition quite unbecoming and desecrating.
Narrated Buraydah ibn al-Hasib: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Judges are of three types, one of whom will go to Paradise and two to Hell. The one who will go to Paradise is a man who knows what is right and gives judgment accordingly; but a man who knows what is right and acts tyrannically in his judgment will go to Hell; and a man who gives judgment for people when he is ignorant will go to Hell.
Most Judges in Nigeria consume the abominable by trading away people’s rights for millions of dollars: Allah says: “Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Indeed, Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing.” (4: 58) Allah also says: “O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what you do.” (5: 8)
Brothers in faith, we commend the government of President Muhammadu Buhari on the effective fight against corruption in its different forms in all sectors one after the other. This time is the turn of the Judiciary. May Allah support and strengthen the government to victory as it go headlong with the myriad of problems plaguing the country- economically, security, socially, politically, intellectually, and so on … Ameen.
Oh Allah descend peace; flowing with continuous tranquility and security upon Nigeria and all other Muslim nations. O Allah accept the worship of the pilgrims of hajj and Umrah, and grant us all Your pleasure, And the last of our call will be, “Praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds!”