ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID 28/RAMADAN/1438AH (23/JUNE/2017CE) -ENGLISH

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL

BEING THE FOURTH KHUTBAH FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADAN 28/RAMADAN/1438AH (23/JUNE/2017CE)

ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID

Praise be to God, who says (قَدْأَفْلَحَمَنْتَزَكَّى (14) وَذَكَرَاسْمَرَبِّهِفَصَلَّى)

But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.(87:14-15). I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger, who enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy.May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

As to what follow,

Dear faithful, I enjoin you and myself to fear Allah, the Almighty both outwardly and inwardly, Allah says:

”  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ (102) ” {آل عمران : 102}

O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him).” (3: 102)

Dear brothers in faith,as we approach the end of fasting, we have some recommended acts of worship peculiar to this period, among these is the zakatul-fitri which should be performed close to the eidul-fitri. It is suppose to serve as reparation for any shortcoming in one’s fasting and provision for the needy.Today’s sermon is therefore titled: ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID.

Zaktul-Fitri: Definition of terms:

Linguistically the word zakat means: blessing, growth, purification and best of a material. Allah says: “But those will prosper who purify themselves.” (87: 14)

Allah also says: (خُذْمِنْأَمْوَالِهِمْصَدَقَةًتُطَهِّرُهُمْوَتُزَكِّيهِمْبِهَا)“Of their goods, take alms, that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; (9: 103)

Technically it is described as the obligatory due on wealth. (Mugniy)

The word Fitr refers to break of fast, thus when it is attached to zakat as zakatul-fitri, it means the charity given at the end of Ramadan as purification for the body and soul.

Technically as well, zakatul-fitr could be described as the payable amount prescribed by the shariah to be paid by a Muslim as purification for his body and soul for himself and everyone he caters for, occasioned by breaking of fasting at the end of Ramadan in a manner prescribed.

Legal Classification

It is classified as a compulsory duty enjoined by the messenger of Allah (pbuh). Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet (pbuh) made Zakat ul-Fitr compulsory on every slave, freeman, male, female, young and old among the Muslims; one Sa’ of dried dates or one Sa’ of barely, he ordered it should be paid before go out for the (eid) prayer.” (Bukhari)

The philosophy behind its legislation

Zakatul-fitri affects both the payer and the receiver, it purifies the person who fasted both rich and poor fromobscenity and lewdness. It is likened to the sujudu-s-sahw (reparation prostration) which is used to restore or make up for any shortcomings in the fasting. As for the wealthy person who fasted, Allah purifies him, while the poor gets back provision beyond what he spent in his payment of the zakatul-fitr.Zakatul-Fitr also has addition benefit of blessing for both the payer and receiver. Ibn Abbas narrated thus: “The Prophet of Allah enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. It is accepted as Zakah for the one who pays it before the `Eid prayer, and it is Sadaqah for the one who pays it after the prayer.” (Abu Dawood&IbnMajah)

In order to satisfy the purpose of enrichment for the poor and protect them from begging on the day of joy and celebration in the community, it must be paid before attendance of people at prayer. Ibn Umar (RA) said: “The messenger of Allah (pbuh) instructed us to pay the zakatul-fitr before people move out for prayer.” Ibn Umar used to pay to those who collect it, and they used to pay it a day or two before the end of Ramadan.” (Bukhari)

The wisdom behind legislating the value to be a Sa’ as the basic quantity per head is thatduring the three days of eid and a few days thereafter people do not engage in occupational and trading activities, thus the poor man would not find who to employ him, as people are felicitating and resting after a month of fasting. Therefore for a person, the produce from a measure of Sa’ could be enough for consumption in four days at least.

And the amount of Zakat al-Fitris a small amount which is easy to perform from the common staple food in the community.

Payment of Zakat in monetary value: There are two major opinions regarding this issue as follow:

1- Permissibility of using monetary value: this is the position of Abu hanifah, Sufyanthaoriy, Umar bn Abdul-Azeez, Hassan Al-basriy, Abu Yusuf, Abu Ja’far At-tohaawiy and others.Sufyanthaoriy said: “Using dates or barley is not a condition in Zakat al-Fitr, rather if the monetary value which is most beneficial for the poor is used, it is permissible, because the aim is to enrich the poor against begging as well as satisfy his need on this day (of eid)

Qarah said: “We received a letter from Umar bin Abdul Azeez on Zakatul-Fitr directing that half of Sa’ to be given on every person, or its monetary value which is half a dirham. Al-Hasan said: It’sright to give dirhams in zakatul-fitr. Abu Ishaq said: “I met them giving zakatulfitri in dirhams equivalent to the value of the food.”

Their Proofs:The basis of charity in Islam is money. Allah says: “Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity” (9: 103). They added that the elucidation of the Prophet was to remove difficulty and not as restriction of obligation, because the Bedouins and nomads value money so much, they fall under those who are to pay zakat, therefore for them to give zakat out of their cattle or produce which is readily available seems easier for them. Also, consider that the Prophet declared that on five camels a sheep is due as zakat, whereas it a sheep is never found among camels, thus the word ‘sheep’ was only used to demonstrate the required worth.

Imam Al-baaniy said supporting use of monetary value: “… It is also the opinion of IbnTaimiyah, he said in Al-Ikhtiyaaraat: “It is permissible to use monetary value for zakatulfitri …” Abu Haneefah said: “The essence of zakatul –fitri is to help the poor ones and cater for their needs in accordance with the prophet’s statement: “Enrich them against seeking –i.e- begging- this day” (Muslim)

Thus zakatul fitri aims to enrich the poor, enrichment could be achieved by giving of dates, grain foods, barley, as well as by giving money, infact, the monetary equivalent could be more beneficial with respect to attending to the need of the poor. Hence if the poor one needs food, then he could purchase it using the money, if he needs clothing or medicine, he could use it for whatever he needs, because the text clearly mentions enrichment, and money does all that. (Al-Mugniy, Ibn Qudaamah, 4/ 295)

2- Non-Permissibility of using monetary value:The proponents of this view hold that items are intended not value and justifying their position using the hadith narrated by Abu Saeed Al-Khudriy: We, on behalf of every young or old, free man or slave (amongst us), used to take out during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as the Zakat of Fitr one sa’ of grain, or one sa’ of cheese or one sa’ of raisins. And we continued taking out these till Mu’awiya b. Abu Sufyan came to us for pilgrimage or ‘Umra, and addressed the people on the pulpit and said to them: I see that two mudds of zakat out of the wheat (red) of Syria is equal to one sa’ of dates. So the people accepted it. But Abu Sa’id said: I would continue to take out as I used to take out (before, i.e. one Sa’) as long as I live.” (Bukhari)

Etiquettes of Eid

Eid is the day of gathering of people as a common practice. It is also named ‘Eid’ because it is an annual event.

Eid Prayer: It is commanded by the Prophet – pbuh- on every member of the Muslim community; males and females. Ibn Taimiyah categorized it as obligatory on every Muslim. This is the view of the Hanafischool, a section of the hanbalis and that of Ibn Qayyim.

Umm ‘Atiyya reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded us to bring out on’Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha young women, menstruating women and purdah-observing ladies, menstruating women kept back from prayer, but participated in goodness and supplication of the Muslims. I said: Messenger of Allah, one of us does not have an outer garment (to cover her face and body). He said: Let her sister cover her with her outer garment. (Bukhari and Muslim).

Etiquettes of ‘Eid:

To eat before going to ‘Eid using dates in odd numbers.

To wear the best of clothes: Umar bought a silk cloak from the market, took it to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Take it and adorn yourself with it during the ‘Id and when the delegations visit you.” Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) replied, “This dress is for those who have no share (in the Hereafter).” (Bukhari)

  • The woman should attend the ‘eid without applying perfume or being exposed “… and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance.” The Prophet said: “Any woman who apply the perfume and passes by a group of people that they may perceive her scent, is a fornicator.” (Ahmad)
  • It recommended to go to ‘eid taking a walk not by by riding except for those with inability or due to farness of the journey.
  • It recommended as well to alternate the route to and from the ‘eid venue. Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) on the day of ‘Eid used to alternate or change the route.” (bukhari).
  • It is permissible to share pleasantry and greeting and prayers on the day of ‘eid.

Some important notes on issues regarding ‘Eid.

  • Caution must be made regarding free mixing between males and females.
  • It is forbidden to have handshake with the opposite sex.
  • Joining family ties is obligatory to the extent that breaking it is regarded as a grievous sin.
  • Eid is a pleasurable occasion which binds the minds and removes hatred and discords etc.

Second Sermon

Praise be to Allah the lord of the worlds that says in His noble Book:

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا﴾ {النِّساء:4\1}

The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy.(49:10)

We praise and thank Him. May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon Muhammad, his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

Having said that,

We are honoured at this moment to present the message of the Grand Mufti of Qatar to his brother in the true religion- the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, in order that we may derive one lesson or the other from it. The reason for this message is the boycott by Saudi Arabia and its allies against the State of Qatar.

Message of the Grand Mufti of Qatar- Sheikh Anwar Albadawi to the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia- Sheikh Abdul Azeezbn Abdullah Aal As-Sheikh

Your Eminence, the Grand Mufti .. You have issued a fatwa (religious verdict) that what Saudi Arabia did regarding the siege and boycott of the State of Qatar is good for its people, and you recommended at the end of the fatwa on adherence to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger- peace be upon him.
Where do we find in the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him) that the Muslim should boycott his Muslim brother and besieged him from land, air and sea and that would be in his interest?

Here is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messengerwhich you have recommended to be followed. And would you help us with a verse from it as evidence on what you said? And here are the books of hadith … would you come up with an hadith – even the weak or fabricated one- referring to your fatwa stance?

As for that your Eminence have not based on any verse of the Book of Allah or the Hadith of the Messenger of Allah- peace be upon him ..From where then did you come upwith this fatwa? Or that you wish a crisis in such a dangerous matter like this?
Did revelation came to your Eminence from the heaven?
Or did you see a vision in a dream ..then passed the fatwa?
Or it is obedience to the leadership without discussion or dialogue?

O Grand Mufti ..

Is the act of boycott against the people of Qatar not an act of breaking family ties, which Allah and His Messenger has ordered to be joined and forbade breaking it?!
Because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) narrated from his Lord in the hadith of al-Qudsi:
(Allah says: “Rahim (family ties) is a word derived from Allah’s special quality, ArRahman (The Compassionate One). And Allah says: ‘I shall keep connection with him who maintains you and sever connection with him who severs you.’” (Bukhari)).
– Is it not that Allah has strongly warned against breaking of family ties? Allah says:So would you perhaps, if you turned away, cause corruption on earth and sever your (ties of) relationship?” (47:22)

Your Eminence, did you know, that the boycott against the people of Qatar have caused separation between husband and wife, father and son, mother and children? By Allah, what is good about this?

Your Eminence, did you know, that thepeople of Qatar have been banned from the Grand Mosque because of the boycott? What good is in this?
Did you know, the Grand Mufti that a young Saudi was prevented from the funeral of his fatherand making solat on him because of your Fatwa?
Did you know that Saudi, Emirati and Bahraini mothers were forced to leave their husbands and Qatari children because of your Fatwa?
Did you know that the worry, the grief, sadness, and distress have engulfed more than eleven thousand husbands and wives in addition to their children, their relatives and friends because of your fatwa?
Did you know that the cries of children, the cries of infants, and the crying of relatives when separated from the fruits of their hearts, all to your credit? What good is in that?

Did your Eminence know that all of these people would become hateful to the shari’a and its people, hostile to the society and its system, and the government?

You are planting hatred of their country and leaders in their heart, and then you ask where did the terrorism come from?
We wish that you be a reason for reunification, and for removal of dispute, and reconciliation between blood brothers.
We would like you to be honest counsel to the authority, as ordered by Allah and His Messenger peace be upon him.

We wished that you prevent the rulers from injustice when they go wrong, according to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): “Support your brother when he is unjust or wronged.” They said: “We know how to help him when he is wronged, how could we help him when he is the unjust? He said: “To turn him away from his injustice”.

We think you should prevent the authority (rulers) who ignited the fire of the boycott on their brothers in Qatar unjustly and out of hatred from their injustice and aggression.

But for you to collude with them and justify their injustice, and philosophize their aggression, this is contrary to what Allah and His Messenger has commanded.
Didn’t you read the words of Allah: (The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy.)?
Did you not read in the Book of Allah: “And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. ?”

Where do you place the boycott of a Muslims nation, and a close neighbor, in the month of mercy?In righteousness and piety?!Or in sin and transgression?

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim: he does not oppress him, nor does he fail him, nor does he lie to him, nor does he hold him in contempt.?

Has Sharia not make is forbidden that a brother break tie with his brother beyond three days, this turning away, and that turning away, and the better of both is he who begins with the greeting of peace?
Is it not one of the characteristics of the Muslims to be (merciful among themselve), or is boycott a type of mercy?
Is it not of the characteristics of Muslims- “…but give [them] preference over themselves, even though they are in privation.”?

Why have you shied away from these clear and bright evidences as you produce your fatwa?

We ask you, O Grand Mufti and all the Islamic Ummah, to turn away from your fatwas that are contrary to the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the consensus, and to work on bringing together and removing the causes of schism between brothers, in compliance with the word of Allah: “And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression.?”
I ask Allah to guide us to do good and good work, and to help you for the good of the nation

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